0-9   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Invitational Competition

A competition that is open to competitors and/or teams from more than one club and may include members of other foreign associations. There may be a selection process whereby skaters qualify to advance to higher levels of competition based on their results at the club/regional/sectional level.


An individual sixteen years of age or older who has been trained and appointed to officiate at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Jump Combination

Singles and Pairs: Two or more jumps in which the landing foot of the first jump is the take-off foot of the next jump and so on. There is no change of foot or turn between the jumps, although the toe may be used to assist the take-off. One full revolution on the ice between the jumps (free foot can touch the ice, but no weight transfer) keeps the element within the definition of a jump combination.

Synchronized Skating: Any number of jumps of at least one revolution that may be linked with turns, steps or with a slight touch down.

Jump Element

An individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence.

Jump Sequence

Singles and Pairs:  Two jumps of any number of revolutions, beginning with a listed jump immediately followed by an axel-type jump with a direct step from the landing curve of the first jump to the take-off curve of the axel jump.  

Synchronized Skating: Consists of any number of jumps of any number of revolutions that may be linked with small hops and dance jumps, immediately following each other while maintaining the jump rhythm (knee); there can be no crossovers or stroking between jumps during the sequence.

Kilian Hold

The partners face in the same direction with the follow to the right of the lead and the lead's right shoulder behind the follow's left. The left arm of the follow is extended across the front of the lead's body to hold the lead's left hand. The lead's right arm crosses behind the follow's back to clasp the follow's right hand. Both right hands rest over the follow's hip bone.

Layback Spin

An upright spin in which head and shoulders are leaning backward with the back arched. The position of the free leg is optional.  Sideways leaning spin is an upright spin in which head and shoulders are leaning sideways and the upper body is arched.  The position of the free leg is optional.  The sideways leaning spin is classed as a layback spin.

Leading Hand

In ice dance, the leading hand of the lead partner is the right hand except in the case of reversed hold when it is the left hand. The leading hand must remain in the prescribed position for the hold.


Level Of Difficulty

The term given to certain features of elements that increase the value of an element. There are 5 levels of difficulty ranging from Level Base to Level 4.

Listed Jump

A jump that is included in the Scale of Values.

Display #