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Active Official

An official who has officiated a minimum of one event within the past 24 months.

Additional Features

Refers to technical content in synchronized skating that increases the difficulty of an element, such as step sequences, free skating moves, free skating elements and points of intersection. 

American Waltz-Type Three-turn

A three-turn from an outside edge in which the free leg is extended and the toe and hip are well turned out and held over the tracing.  The instep of the free foot is drawn close to the heel of the skating foot as the turn is made. After the turn onto an inside edge, the free foot is extended back of the tracing before being brought back beside the skating foot in time for the next step.


A position in which the free leg is bent, and brought up, out and behind at a ninety-degree angle to the leg of the skating foot.


Refers to the imaginary line(s) which divide(s) the ice surface (e.g. long axis, short axis).  

Axis of Intersection

In synchronized skating, refers to the axis where the skaters are passing/intersecting with one another. In the case of a collapsing intersection (box, triangle, etc.), the axis of intersection is defined as the area within the shape once the corners have started to intersect and before the skaters exit the intersection and pass through at the final corners.

Backward Entry Spins

These spins generally enter with a forward inside spiraling edge on the same foot on which the skater lands.  The spin is initiated by a forward inside three-turn creating a backward outside spinning edge

Base Level Technical Official (BLTO)

An individual sixteen years of age or older who is responsible for accurate technical panel process and for authorizing, correcting, deleting and adding elements to the list of elements performed during an event. The BLTO assists with the identification of elements in competition. The BLTO also assists with the identification of falls and illegal elements where appropriate to the level. The BLTO is qualified to act on a panel at or below a specified level of competition in singles only and can only be assigned to events where elements can be called no higher than base level.

Base Value

The value attributed to each element based on its level of difficulty assuming no additions or reductions for grades of execution.  Base values are listed in the scales of values (SOV). 

Basic Position

Refers to the three basic spin positions – camel, sit and upright.

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