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Under-rotated Jump

A jump that is missing one quarter of a revolution or more, but less than one half of a revolution. It is shown with the symbol < following the element code.

United States Figure Skating (USFS)

National governing body for the sport of figure skating in the United States. U.S. Figure Skating is a member of the International Skating Union (ISU), the international federation for figure skating, and is a member of the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC).

Upright Position

Singles and Pairs: Any spin position with the skating leg extended or slightly bent which is not a camel position.

Ice Dance: A basic spin position performed on one foot with skating leg straight or slightly bent and upper body upright (on a nearly vertical axis), arched back or bent to side.

Upright Spin

The skater is spinning in an upright position, a minimum of three revolutions.  The arms and free foot may be held in a variety of positions.


A move of not more than one revolution, in which a skater(s) provides passive assistance (in a non-lifting manner) to another skater(s) who turn/revolves, head over heels (or vice versa) in a cartwheel or somersault action.  In this action, there is a continuous ascending and descending movement, where the vaulting skater(s) rotate/revolve.  The hands of a skater(s) providing the passive assistance may rise higher than shoulder level height.

Walk-around Three-turns

Three-turns turned by a couple at the same time around a common axis. The partners skate these turns in Waltz hold (e.g., Austrian Waltz steps 29-31, Ravensburger Waltz steps 39-40) or offset in partial tango hold (e.g., Golden Waltz steps 1-5).

Waltz Jump

An edge jump with natural rotation taken off from a forward outside edge.  This jump is one half a rotation and is included as a listed jump in the Skate Canada Scale of Values but is not included in the ISU Scale of Values.

Weak Beat

The minor accent of a piece of music. For rhythms with a skating count on two measures, the first beat of the second measure is the weak beat (e.g., skating count 3 of the Quickstep; skating count 4 of the American Waltz).  The skating count of each rhythm is explained in the ISU Ice Dance Rhythms Booklet and CD.

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