0-9   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Technical Specialist (TS)

An individual sixteen years of age or older who identifies elements and levels of difficulty of elements in competition. The technical specialist also identifies falls and illegal elements. Technical specialists are qualified to act on panels at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.


The speed of the music in beats or measures per minute.


A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an inside edge or an inside edge to an outside edge, with the exit curve continuing on the same lobe as the entry curve. The skater turns in the direction of the curve.

Throw Jump

A partner-assisted jump in which a skater is launched into the air by a partner on the takeoff. and lands without assistance from the partner. Throw jumps are named after the basic solo jump which is initiated and executed only by the skater being assisted. 

Toe Jump

A general term that refers to jumps that take off with the assistance of the toe pick (i.e. Toe Loop, Flip, Lutz).

Toe Loop

A toe jump with natural rotation that takes off from a backward outside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of rotations. 

Toe Step

A step where the skater steps from one toe pick to the other toe pick without jumping, with or without using rotations.

Total Element Score (TES)

The sum of the judging panel’s scores for all sections/elements.

Touchdown Three-turn

A three-turn in which the weight is almost immediately transferred to the free foot as it becomes the skating foot for the next step. The turn is made from a forward outside three to the backward outside edge of the opposite foot without full weight transfer, then the skater immediately steps forward onto the original foot (e.g., Austrian Waltz steps 1-2). Such a sequence may be skated with the forward or backward, inside or outside three-turns. May be skated alone or as a team side by side.


The spatial relationship of two skaters moving together on a curve or a straight line.  The tracings left on the ice represent each skater’s tracking pattern.

Display #