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A term used to describe sections of the program that occur within elements, during entrances and exits of elements and as connecting elements and executed in-between the required/optional elements.

Transverse Axis

An imaginary line intersecting the continuous axis of a dance at the right angles.

Trial Judge

A person who is training to become qualified as a judge or a judge who is training to become qualified at a higher level.


A rotational movement in which the skater moves from forward to backward or backward to forward using one foot and on an edge and axis (e.g. Three-turn, Bracket). In a two-foot turn the rotational movement from forward to backward or backward to forward is from one foot to the other foot (e.g. C step, S step).

Twist Lift

A hand-to-waist lift in which a skater is lifted into the air on the take-off. At the top of the lift the lifted partner is released and completes a twist, rotating freely in the air, during which time the lifting partner turns a half turn to catch the lifted partner at the waist for an assisted landing. The twist lift is named after the basic solo jump take-off - Axel, Toe Loop, Flip or Lutz – and by the number of rotations the lifted partner completes in the air before being caught. 


A traveling turn on one foot with one or more rotations which is quickly rotated with a continuous, uninterrupted action. The weight remains on the skating foot with the free foot in any position during the turn then placed beside the skating foot to skate the next step.

Under-rotated Jump

A jump that is missing more than one quarter of a revolution, but less than one half of a revolution. It is shown with the symbol < following the element code.

United States Figure Skating (USFS)

National governing body for the sport of figure skating in the United States. U.S. Figure Skating is a member of the International Skating Union (ISU), the international federation for figure skating, and is a member of the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC).

Upright Position

Singles and Pairs: Any spin position with the skating leg extended or slightly bent which is not a camel position.

Ice Dance: A basic spin position performed on one foot with skating leg straight or slightly bent and upper body upright (on a nearly vertical axis), arched back or bent to side.

Upright Spin

The skater is spinning in an upright position, a minimum of three revolutions.  The arms and free foot may be held in a variety of positions.

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