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Refers to the imaginary line(s) which divide(s) the ice surface (e.g. long axis, short axis).  

Axis of Intersection

In synchronized skating, refers to the axis where the skaters are passing/intersecting with one another. In the case of a collapsing intersection (box, triangle, etc.), the axis of intersection is defined as the area within the shape once the corners have started to intersect and before the skaters exit the intersection and pass through at the final corners.

Backward Entry Spins

These spins generally enter with a forward inside spiraling edge on the same foot on which the skater lands.  The spin is initiated by a forward inside three-turn creating a backward outside spinning edge

Base Level Technical Official (BLTO)

An individual sixteen years of age or older who is responsible for accurate technical panel process and for authorizing, correcting, deleting and adding elements to the list of elements performed during an event. The BLTO assists with the identification of elements in competition. The BLTO also assists with the identification of falls and illegal elements where appropriate to the level. The BLTO is qualified to act on a panel at or below a specified level of competition in singles only and can only be assigned to events where elements can be called no higher than base level.

Base Value

The value attributed to each element based on its level of difficulty assuming no additions or reductions for grades of execution.  Base values are listed in the scales of values (SOV). 

Basic Position

Refers to the three basic spin positions – camel, sit and upright.


A note defining the regular recurring divisions of a piece of music.


The board of Directors of Skate Canada.


A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an inside edge or an inside edge to an outside edge, with the exit curve continuing on the same lobe as the entry curve. The skater turns in the direction opposite to the curve.


A skating movement in which the body is already in nearly horizontal position at the take-off.  The free leg makes a wide, powerful rotational swing upwards so that it is higher than the upper part of the body and head.  During the flight and on the landing, the body remains in a horizontal position.  There is no number of revolutions required after the landing.

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