Terms used:

Axel Jump

An edge jump with natural rotation that takes off from a forward outside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of revolutions. Unlike other single jumps which are one rotation, a single Axel has one and a half rotations.

Backward Entry Spin

These spins generally enter with a forward inside spiraling edge on the same foot on which the skater lands.  The spin is initiated by a forward inside three-turn creating a backward outside spinning edge. 

Basic Positions

Refers to the three basic spin positions – camel, sit and upright.

Category

The name for each level of competition within a discipline.  Examples of categories are STAR 1, STAR 2, Pre-Juvenile, Juvenile, Pre-Novice, etc.

Choreographic Sequence

Consists of any kind of movements like steps, turns, spirals, arabesques, spread eagles, Ina Bauers, hydroblading, any jumps with maximum of two revolutions, spins, etc. The pattern is not restricted, but the sequence must be clearly visible.

Club

A not-for-profit organization that is operating for the general purpose of providing Skate Canada skating programs and is managed by a volunteer board of directors.

Combination Spin

A combination spin has different definitions depending on the discipline as follows:

  • Singles: A spin which includes a change of position. A combination spin must include a minimum of two different basic positions with two revolutions in each of these positions anywhere within the spin. To receive full value, a spin combination must include all three basic positions.  
  • Pairs:  A pair spin which consists of at least one change of foot and one change of position of both partners. The pair spin combination must include a minimum of two different basic positions with two revolutions in each of these positions by both partners anywhere within the spin. To receive full value, a spin combination must include all three basic positions by both partners. 
  • Ice Dance: A dance spin which has a change of foot performed simultaneously by both partners.  
  • Synchronized Skating: The spin combination must include a minimum of two different basic positions (sit, camel, upright or any variation thereof) and only one change of foot. The change of foot and the change of position must occur at the same time by all skaters executing the spin. 

Dance Lift

A movement in which one of the partners is elevated with active and/or passive assistance of the other partner to any permitted height, sustained there and set down on the ice. Any rotations and positions and changes of such positions during the lift are permitted. Any variation or combinations of dance lifts as determined by the ISU Ice Dance Technical Committee are published in an ISU Communication.

Dance Lifts

A movement in which one of the partners is elevated with active and/or passive assistance of the other partner to any permitted height, sustained there and set down on the ice. Any rotations and positions and changes of such positions during the lift are permitted. Any variation or combinations of dance lifts as determined by the ISU Ice Dance Technical Committee are published in an ISU Communication.

Death Spiral

A pivot figure in which the man is in a backward outside pivot, holding one hand of the woman with one hand.  The woman skates around the man on one foot with her body in a well-arched position, very close to the surface of the ice. The edge skated by the lady determines the name of the death spiral. i.e. backward outside, backward inside, forward outside, forward inside.

Event

The name given to a group of skaters entered in a category.  There may be one event per category or several events per category depending on the number of total entries.  Each event is independent of the other events within the category. 

Events

The name given to a group of skaters entered in a category.  There may be one event per category or several events per category depending on the number of total entries.  Each event is independent of the other events within the category. 

Flying Spin

Novice and lower and STAR:

  • Spins that enter with a jump and land in a spinning position. The spin may have a change of foot or a change of position or both. 

ISU definitions for Junior and Senior:

  • A spin with a flying entrance with no change of foot or position.  The name of the flying spin corresponds to its landing position. This definition is specific to junior and senior short programs.  

Spin with a flying entrance:

  • This is the ISU definition for all flying spins that are not ‘flying spins’ as defined above.

Forward Entry Spin

These spins generally enter with a forward outside spiraling edge on the opposite foot the skater lands on. The spin is initiated by a forward outside three-turn creating a backward inside spinning edge.

Free Skating Program

A program of a specified length, skated to music of the skater’s choice. The skater is free to choose the number and the type of elements to be included, subject to the requirements outlined in the requirements for individual assessments/tests and competitions.

International Skating Union

The International Skating Union (ISU) is the exclusive international sport federation recognized by the International Olympic Committee administering the sports of Figure Skating and Speed Skating throughout the world. The ISU is composed of a number of national associations called ISU Members that administer ISU sports at the national level and recognize that all international matters are under the sole jurisdiction and control of the ISU.

Interruptions

The period of time starting immediately when the competitor stops performing the program or is ordered to do so by the referee, whichever is earlier, and ending when the competitor resumes the performance.

Jump Combination

Singles and Pairs: Two or more jumps in which the landing foot of the first jump is the take-off foot of the next jump and so on. There is no change of foot or turn between the jumps, although the toe may be used to assist the take-off. One full revolution on the ice between the jumps (free foot can touch the ice, but no weight transfer) keeps the element within the definition of a jump combination.

Synchronized Skating: Any number of jumps of at least one revolution that may be linked with turns, steps or with a slight touch down.

Jump Elements

An individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence.

Loop

A one-foot movement where the skater skates an oval pattern using the same edge. The entry and exit of the loop must cross. The loop must be clean cut without scrapes or points.

Member

Each entity that meets the requirements of any of the three Member classes as defined in Article 3 hereof [of the bylaws].

 

Members

Each entity that meets the requirements of any of the three Member classes as defined in Article 3 hereof [of the bylaws].

 

Pivot

A two-footed movement in which the toe picks of one foot are inserted into the ice by a skater as a central pivoting point while the other foot travels in a circular pattern around the pivot point.

Pivoting

A two-footed movement in which the toe picks of one foot are inserted into the ice by a skater as a central pivoting point while the other foot travels in a circular pattern around the pivot point.

Point of Intersection

In synchronized skating, the point of intersection is an additional feature for the intersection element and is a type of movement/rotation that the skaters execute at the axis of intersection.

Rhythm

The regularly repeated pattern of accented and unaccented beats which gives the music its character.

Rhythm Dance

A dance created by an ice dance couple to dance music with designated rhythm(s) and/or theme(s) selected annually by the ISU Ice Dance Technical Committee.

Salchow

An edge jump with natural rotation that takes off from a backward inside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of rotations.

Sequence

The set order of the prescribed steps that compose one pattern of a Pattern Dance.

Sequences

The set order of the prescribed steps that compose one pattern of a Pattern Dance.

Set of Synchronized Twizzles

In ice dance, a series of two twizzles with up to three steps between twizzles.

Short Lift

A dance lift which does not exceed seven seconds in duration.

Short Lifts

A dance lift which does not exceed seven seconds in duration.

Sit Spin

A spin in which the skater remains in a sit position while rotating.  The supporting leg must be bent at least to a ninety-degree angle.  The thigh of the skating foot must be parallel to the ice surface.

Solo Dance

The term used when a skater skates the full pattern of a dance alone.

Solo Spin

In ice dance, a spinning movement performed on one foot on the spot by one partner alone (with or without the assistance of the other partner) or by both partners simultaneously (around separate centres).

Spin

An element where the skater rapidly revolves, centred on a single point on the ice, while holding one or more body positions.  In singles and pairs, a spin must have at least three revolutions to be considered a spin. The minimum number of revolutions in a position is two without interruption.

Spin In One Position

In singles and pairs, any spin which has only one of the three basic positions and no non-basic positions.  In spins in one position and flying spins in one position, the concluding upright position at the end of the spin is not considered to be another position independent of the number of revolutions, as long as the skater is executing only the final wind-up without any enhancements.

Spins

An element where the skater rapidly revolves, centred on a single point on the ice, while holding one or more body positions.  In singles and pairs, a spin must have at least three revolutions to be considered a spin. The minimum number of revolutions in a position is two without interruption.

Spiral

A gliding position executed on one foot with free leg extended (including knee and foot) above hip level.

Spiral Sequence

A collection of at least two spirals executed on different feet.  The spirals must not be separated by other elements such as jumps or spins.  Some categories have requirements for the number of steps between the spirals, supported/unsupported and/or skating direction of the spirals.

Spirals

A gliding position executed on one foot with free leg extended (including knee and foot) above hip level.

Step

The visible tracing on the ice that is executed on one foot. A step is counted each time there is a change of foot.

Style

Characteristics of levels of step sequences in ice dance.

Throw Jump

A partner-assisted jump in which a skater is launched into the air by a partner on the takeoff. and lands without assistance from the partner. Throw jumps are named after the basic solo jump which is initiated and executed only by the skater being assisted. 

Twist Lift

A hand-to-waist lift in which a skater is lifted into the air on the take-off. At the top of the lift the lifted partner is released and completes a twist, rotating freely in the air, during which time the lifting partner turns a half turn to catch the lifted partner at the waist for an assisted landing. The twist lift is named after the basic solo jump take-off - axel, toe-loop, flip or Lutz – and by the number of rotations the lifted partner completes in the air before being caught. 

Twist Lifts

A hand-to-waist lift in which a skater is lifted into the air on the take-off. At the top of the lift the lifted partner is released and completes a twist, rotating freely in the air, during which time the lifting partner turns a half turn to catch the lifted partner at the waist for an assisted landing. The twist lift is named after the basic solo jump take-off - axel, toe-loop, flip or Lutz – and by the number of rotations the lifted partner completes in the air before being caught. 

Twizzles

A traveling turn on one foot with one or more rotations which is quickly rotated with a continuous, uninterrupted action. The weight remains on the skating foot with the free foot in any position during the turn then placed beside the skating foot to skate the next step.

United States Figure Skating

National governing body for the sport of figure skating in the United States. U.S. Figure Skating is a member of the International Skating Union (ISU), the international federation for figure skating, and is a member of the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC).

Upright Spins

The skater is spinning in an upright position, a minimum of three revolutions.  The arms and free foot may be held in a variety of positions.

Waltz Jump

An edge jump with natural rotation taken off from a forward outside edge.  This jump is one half a rotation and is included as a listed jump in the Skate Canada Scale of Values but is not included in the ISU Scale of Values.

General Information

All adult programs have no minimum program time assigned. This will allow skaters to meet their various goals for the season whether that is to pass a STAR test, compete at an ISU or a USFS event, or compete at a Skate Canada Adult Figure Skating event.

Vocal music is permitted in all events. If vocal music is chosen, the piece(s) must contain lyrics in good taste and appropriate for competition.

All falls on elements and/or in isolation will be called.

Refer to the Competitions Rule and Scoring of Skate Canada Competitions Rule for a full list of deductions pertaining to timing, interruptions, illegal elements, costumes and props, etc.

Maximum element requirements have been established for all Adult free skating, free dance and pairs events. Skaters are expected to skate to their ability and enter the appropriate category based on the competition program requirements.

The following age categories apply to Singles Free Skating and Interpretive events:

Young Adult 18 to 24 years
Class I 25 to 35 years
Class II 36 to 45 years
Class III 46 to 55 years
Class IV 56 years and older

Note that successive age categories may be combined if numbers warrant. Skaters must be notified prior to the competition if age categories are being combined.

Free Skating

Adult Intro Open Free Skating

A free skating program to music a maximum of one minute forty seconds

Seven elements:

  • Maximum four jump elements
    • must include a waltz jump
    • must include a single salchow + single toeloop jump combination
    • two other jumps, no higher than single loop
  • Maximum two spin elements
    • two one position spins; no flying entry
    • two upright spins are permitted provided one is a forward entry spin and the other is a backward entry spin (i.e. a back spin)
    • an exception will be made to the rule requiring spins to have different codes
  • Forward spiral sequence
    • a sequence of two forward spirals, one on each foot
    • both spirals must be unassisted

Adult Bronze Free Skating

A free skating program to music a maximum of two minutes forty seconds

Seven elements:

  • Maximum four jump elements
    • all jumps must be single jumps
    • single axel, double and triple jumps are not permitted
    • maximum of two combinations or sequences (maximum of two jumps in a combination)
    • no jump may be included more than twice
    • a repeated jump must be executed as part of a jump combination or sequence
  • Maximum of two spins
    • one must be a spin in one position
    • one spin of any nature
    • flying spins are not permitted
  • Maximum of one choreographic sequence

Adult Silver Free Skating

A free skating program to music a maximum of three minutes 10 seconds

Nine elements:

  • Maximum five jump elements
    • may include a single axel jump
    • double and triple jumps are not permitted
    • maximum of three combinations or sequences (maximum of two jumps in a combination)
    • no jump may be included more than twice
    • a repeated jump must be executed as part of a jump combination or sequence
  • Maximum of three spins
    • one must be a combination spin with at least one change of foot
    • spins must have different codes
  • Maximum of one choreographic sequence

Adult Gold Free Skating

A free skating program to music a maximum of three minutes 40 seconds

10 elements:

  • Maximum six jump elements
    • may include all single jumps and double jumps no higher than double loop
    • maximum of three combinations or sequences (maximum of two jumps in a combination); only one double jump may be included
    • no jump may be included more than twice
    • a repeated jump must be executed as part of a jump combination or sequence
  • Maximum of three spins
    • one must be a combination spin with at least one change of foot
    • one must be a flying spin
    • one spin of any nature
  • Maximum of one choreographic sequence

Adult Masters Free Skating

A free skating program to music a maximum of four minutes 10 seconds

10 elements:

  • Maximum six jump elements
    • all single and double jumps are permitted; triple jumps are not permitted
    • one must be an axel type jump
    • maximum of three combinations or sequences; one jump combination may consist of up to three jumps
    • no jump may be included more than twice
    • a repeated jump must be executed as part of a jump combination or sequence
  • Maximum of three spins
    • one must be a combination spin with at least one change of foot and two basic positions
    • one must be a flying spin
    • one spin of any nature
  • Maximum of one step sequence

Adult Masters Elite Free Skating

A free skating program to music a maximum of four minutes 10 seconds

10 elements:

  • Maximum six jump elements
    • all jumps are permitted
    • one must be an axel type jump
    • maximum of three combinations or sequences; one jump combination may consist of up to three jumps
    • no jump may be included more than twice
    • a repeated jump must be executed as part of a jump combination or sequence
  • Maximum of three spins
    • one must be a combination spin with at least one change of foot and two basic positions
    • one must be a flying spin
    • one spin of any nature
  • Maximum of one step sequence

Ice Dance

Couples Pattern Dance

Dance teams must be composed of two skaters.

Competitors may enter only one couples pattern dance event.

Key points will not be used.

Adult STAR 4/5 Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: two sequences of the European Waltz
  • Pattern Dance Two: three sequences of the Fiesta Tango

Adult STAR 6/7 Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: four sequences of the Fourteenstep
  • Pattern Dance Two: two sequences of the Tango

Adult STAR 8/9 Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: two sequences of the American Waltz
  • Pattern Dance Two: three sequences of the Blues

Adult STAR 10/Gold Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: two sequences of the Westminster Waltz
  • Pattern Dance Two: six sequences of the Kilian

Adult Elite Dance

For former competitive ice dancers or skaters approximately at this level

  • Pattern Dance One: two sequences of the Westminster Waltz
  • Pattern Dance Two: two sequences of the Cha Cha Congelado

Solo Dance

Adult Bronze Solo Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: two sequences of the Swing Dance
  • Pattern Dance Two: three sequences of the Fiesta Tango

Adult Silver Solo Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: three sequences of the Ten-Fox
  • Pattern Dance Two: two sequences of the American Waltz

Adult Gold Solo Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: two sequences of the Starlight Waltz
  • Pattern Dance Two: three sequences of the Blues

Adult Elite Solo Dance

  • Pattern Dance One: four sequences of the Quickstep
  • Pattern Dance Two: three sequences of the Viennese Waltz

Adult Open Solo Rhythm Dance

  • Starlight Waltz – follow criteria as outlined in the STAR Program Requirements Guide

Free Dance

Dance teams must be composed of two skaters.

Vocal music is permitted in all categories.

Adult Bronze Free Dance

A free dance to music a maximum of two minutes in length

  • Maximum of one short dance lift, a maximum of seven seconds in duration; called to maximum Level 1
  • Maximum of one dance spin: simple spin (no change of foot)
  • Maximum of one diagonal step sequence: Style B

Adult Silver Free Dance

A free dance to music a maximum of two minutes forty seconds in length

  • Maximum of one short dance lift, a maximum of seven seconds in duration: called to maximum Level 2
  • Maximum of one dance spin: simple spin or combination spin
  • Maximum of one set of synchronized twizzles with up to three steps in between
  • Maximum of one diagonal step sequence: Style B

Adult Gold Free Dance

A free dance to music a maximum of three minutes ten seconds in length

  • Maximum of two different dance lifts: one short lift, a maximum of seven seconds in duration and one long lift, a maximum of 12 seconds in duration OR three different types of short lifts (seven seconds)
  • Maximum of one dance spin: simple spin or combination spin
  • Maximum of one set of synchronized twizzles with up to three steps in between
  • Maximum of one diagonal step sequence: Style B - in hold

Pairs

Adult pairs teams must be composed of one female and one male.

Adult Pairs

This category is for skaters approximately at the Bronze to Silver Free Skating level

One program to music a maximum of three minutes 10 seconds

  • Maximum of two different lifts from Group 1 or Group 2 with a minimum half revolution for the man and one revolution for the woman; called to maximum Level Base
    • variations of the woman’s position, one-handed and no-handed lifts are not permitted
    • overhead lifts and twist lifts are not permitted
    • a different take-off counts as a different lift
  • Maximum of one throw jump; single only
  • Maximum of one solo jump; single jumps only
  • Maximum of one jump combination or sequence; single jumps only
  • Maximum of one pair spin; may be in combination
  • Maximum of one pivot figure or death spiral
  • Maximum of one choreographic sequence

Adult Masters Pairs

This category is for skaters approximately at the Gold to Masters Free Skating category level

One program to music a maximum of three minutes 40 seconds

  • Maximum of three different lifts, called to maximum Level Base; one may be a twist lift
  • Maximum of two throw jumps; single or double
  • Maximum of one solo jump; all jumps permitted; may be repeated once in the jump combination or sequence
  • Maximum of one jump combination or sequence; jump combination may include three jumps
  • Maximum of one pairs spin; may be in combination
  • Maximum of one solo spin; may be in combination
  • Maximum of one pivot figure or death spiral
  • Maximum of one step sequence

Interpretive

Interpretive programs are designed by the skaters and/or coach and focus on the skater’s ability to interpret music to create a clear mood/theme or create a story through skating movement. A variety of skating moves should be selected for their value in enhancing the skater’s interpretation of the music rather than for their technical difficulty. Movements should not be merely a collection of pleasing or spectacular moves assembled to popular music for the purpose of entertaining an audience (exhibition/show program). Costumes must be simple and modest to enhance the interpretation and must not be theatrical in nature. Props of any kind are not permitted. Skaters/couples wishing a more theatrical performance are encouraged to enter the Showcase categories.

An interpretive program is intended through its process to increase body and choreographic vocabulary and awareness, by meeting specific content criteria. The criteria includes:

  • Compositional form/development of theme (e.g. a completed idea)
  • Dynamics (e.g. sustained, collapse, sharp, smooth)
  • Use of space (e.g. planes, directions, indirect, asymmetric shapes)
  • Use of full body (e.g. torso, head, hands, legs, feet)
  • Use of music (e.g. phrasing, style, awareness and sensitivity to musical elements while performing)

Interpretive events consist of five levels of competition and may be offered for singles and/or couples.

Prior to the competition, skaters must submit the title of the chosen theme. This is generally part of the entry registration process.

Adult Introductory Interpretive

For skaters approximately at the Intro Open Free Skating category

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of two minutes in length

Adult Bronze Interpretive

For skaters approximately at the Bronze Free Skating category level

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of three minutes in length

Adult Silver Interpretive

For skaters approximately at the Silver Free Skating category level

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of three minutes in length

Adult Gold Interpretive

For skaters approximately at the Gold Free Skating category level

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of three minutes in length

Adult Elite Interpretive

For skates approximately at the level of former competitive skaters

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of three minutes in length

Adult Open Couples

For skaters approximately at the Bronze to Silver Free Skating category level (both skaters)

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of three minutes in length

  • Overhead lifts are not permitted and will considered as an illegal element
  • Small dance lifts which may be either ascending and descending or rotational in character, in which the lifting partner does not raise their hands higher than the shoulder level are permitted

Adult Open Masters Couples Interpretive

For skaters approximately at the Gold to Elite Free Skating category level (both skaters)

One interpretive program to music, a maximum of three minutes in length

  • Overhead lifts are not permitted and will considered as an illegal element
  • Small dance lifts which may be either ascending and descending or rotational in character, in which the lifting partner does not raise their hands higher than the shoulder level are permitted

Showcase

Showcase programs are designed by the skaters and/or coach and focus on the skater’s ability to entertain an audience through the use of theatrics or artistic abilities. Programs may tell a story, create a mood or have an obvious theme. This category is comparable to US Figure Skating Dramatic and Light Skate Entertainment.

Program content requirements and event procedures for all levels:

  • Theatrical costumes and hand props are permitted
  • Feathers and boas of any type are not permitted
  • Vocal music is permitted
  • All single jumps are permitted; jumps of any higher rotation will be subject to an illegal element violation
  • A maximum of one minute will be permitted prior to each performance for the skater(s) to warm-up and set up any props as necessary

Adult Introductory Showcase

For skaters approximately at the Intro Open Free Skating category level

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Adult Bronze Showcase

For skaters approximately at the Bronze Free Skating category level

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Adult Silver Showcase

For skaters approximately at the Silver Free Skating category level

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Adult Gold Showcase

For skaters approximately at the Gold and/or Masters Free Skating category level

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Adult Elite Showcase

For skaters approximately at the level of former competitive skaters

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Adult Open Couples Showcase

For skaters approximately at the Bronze to Silver Free Skating category level (both skaters)

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Adult Open Masters Couples Showcase

For skaters approximately at the Gold to Elite Masters Free Skating category level (both skaters)

Program time is a maximum of one minute 40 seconds

Team Elements

This category is comparable to US Figure Skating Team Maneuvers

Event procedures for all levels:

  • All categories are assessed to standard with ranking
  • Each team will consist of three to five members
  • Males and females will compete on the same team
  • One element will be performed by each member of the team
  • Each skater may perform no more than two elements
  • Skaters do not have to represent the same club
  • A skater may only compete on one team
  • Skaters may skate up one level from their Free Skate level

Bronze Team

For skaters approximately at the Bronze Free Skating category level

  • Element #1 waltz jump + toeloop jump combination
  • Element #2 any single + single jump combination
  • Element #3 forward and backward spirals
  • Element #4 one-foot spin, either forward or backward entry
  • Element #5 sit spin, minimum three revolutions

Silver Team

For skaters approximately at the Silver Free Skating category level

  • Element #1 single axel
  • Element #2 any single + single jump combination
  • Element #3 layback or cross foot spin
  • Element #4 camel/sit combination spin
  • Element #5 spiral or step sequence

Gold Team

For skaters approximately at the Gold and/or Masters Free Skating category level

  • Element #1 single axel
  • Element #2 any jump combination or sequence
  • Element #3 layback or cross foot spin
  • Element #4 any combination spin; flying entry optional
  • Element #5 spiral or step sequence

Synchronized Skating

Adult SyS I

Teams consist of eight to 20 skaters.

Skaters must have reached the age of 18 before July 1 preceding the competition.

The team will perform a free skating program to music a maximum of three minutes 10 seconds in length. A well-balanced Adult I SyS program contains:

  • Intersection element; optional point of intersection
  • No hold element with optional step sequence
  • Pivoting element - block
  • Travelling element - circle
  • Artistic element - line
  • Artistic element - wheel

Adult SyS II

Teams consist of eight to 20 skaters

Skaters must have reached the age of 18 before July 1 preceding the competition and at least 75% of the skaters must have reached the age of 25 before July 1 preceding the competition

The team will perform a free skating program to music a maximum of three minutes 10 seconds in length. A well-balanced Adult II SyS program contains:

  • Intersection element; optional point of intersection
  • Pivoting element - block
  • Traveling element - circle
  • Choice of linear element or rotating element chosen from line or wheel
  • Choice of one artistic element chosen from line or wheel*

*Artistic element choice must be different than linear/rotating element choice.

Adult SyS III

Teams consist of eight to 20 skaters

Skaters must have reached the age of 19 before July 1 preceding the competition and at least 75% of the skaters must have reached the age of 35 before July 1 preceding the competition

The team will perform a free skating program to music a maximum of two minutes 40 seconds in length. A well-balanced Adult III SyS program contains:

  • Intersection element; optional point of intersection
  • Pivoting element - block
  • Rotating element - circle
  • Linear element – line
  • Rotating element - wheel