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Terms used:

Act

The Canada Not-for-Profit Corporations Act S.C. 2009, c.23 including the regulations made pursuant to the Act, and any statute or regulations that may be substituted, as amended from time to time.

Axel Jump

An edge jump with natural rotation that takes off from a forward outside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of revolutions. Unlike other single jumps which are one rotation, a single Axel has one and a half rotations.

Basic Position

Refers to the three basic spin positions – camel, sit and upright.

Beat

A note defining the regular recurring divisions of a piece of music.

Board

The board of Directors of Skate Canada.

Camel Position

Singles and Pairs: A basic spin position with the free leg backwards with the knee higher than the hip level, however Layback and Biellmann are still considered as upright positions.

Ice Dance: Performed on one foot with skating leg straight or slightly bent and body bent forward and free leg extended or bent upward on a horizontal line or higher.

Camel Spin

A spin in which the skater remains in a spiral position while rotating. The free leg (including the knee and foot) must be held at hip level or higher.

Category

The name for each level of competition within a discipline.  Examples of categories are STAR 1, STAR 2, Pre-Juvenile, Juvenile, Pre-Novice, etc.

Chair

The chair of the Board.

Club

A not-for-profit organization that is operating for the general purpose of providing Skate Canada skating programs and is managed by a volunteer board of directors.

Combination Spin

A combination spin has different definitions depending on the discipline as follows:

  • Singles: A spin which includes a change of position. A combination spin must include a minimum of two different basic positions with two revolutions in each of these positions anywhere within the spin. To receive full value, a spin combination must include all three basic positions.  
  • Pairs:  A pair spin which consists of at least one change of foot and one change of position of both partners. The pair spin combination must include a minimum of two different basic positions with two revolutions in each of these positions by both partners anywhere within the spin. To receive full value, a spin combination must include all three basic positions by both partners. 
  • Ice Dance: A dance spin which has a change of foot performed simultaneously by both partners.  
  • Synchronized Skating: The spin combination must include a minimum of two different basic positions (sit, camel, upright or any variation thereof) and only one change of foot. The change of foot and the change of position must occur at the same time by all skaters executing the spin. 

Crosscut

A step or sequence of steps (push + cross) in which the free foot crosses the skating foot completely before it is placed on the ice.

Cumulative Points Calculation

The Cumulative Points Calculation Judging System is a method for the calculation of results in the sport of figure skating. This system is based on the principle that a performance can be divided into elements (of difficulty) and program components, each of which can be evaluated individually. The total of the marks for all of the elements and components forms the score for each skater or team in a competition. The highest scoring skater, couple or team is declared the winner. The second highest places second and so on.

Data Specialists

An individual sixteen years of age or older who has been trained and appointed to calculate the results of sanctioned figure skating competitions.

Days

Total days including weekends and holidays.

Edge

May refer either to part of the skate blade, or the visible tracing of a skate blade on one foot that is on one curve. An edge may be either inside (towards the body) or outside (away from the body), and forward or backward, for a total for four different edges.

Edges

May refer either to part of the skate blade, or the visible tracing of a skate blade on one foot that is on one curve. An edge may be either inside (towards the body) or outside (away from the body), and forward or backward, for a total for four different edges.

Evaluator

An individual sixteen years of age or older who is responsible for evaluating assessments in the STAR 6-Gold structure.  Evaluators are qualified to assess in one or more disciplines.

Evaluators

An individual sixteen years of age or older who is responsible for evaluating assessments in the STAR 6-Gold structure.  Evaluators are qualified to assess in one or more disciplines.

Event

The name given to a group of skaters entered in a category.  There may be one event per category or several events per category depending on the number of total entries.  Each event is independent of the other events within the category. 

Events

The name given to a group of skaters entered in a category.  There may be one event per category or several events per category depending on the number of total entries.  Each event is independent of the other events within the category. 

Fall

Defined as a loss of control by a skater with the result that the majority of his/her own body weight is on the ice being supported by any other part of the body other than the blades. e.g. hand(s), knee(s), back, buttock(s) or any part of the arm.

Flat

The visible double tracing of a skate that is straight (imprinted by the skater skating on one foot on both edges of the blade).

Flip Jump

A toe jump with natural rotation that takes off from a backward inside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of revolutions.

Interruption

The period of time starting immediately when the competitor stops performing the program or is ordered to do so by the referee, whichever is earlier, and ending when the competitor resumes the performance.

Interruptions

The period of time starting immediately when the competitor stops performing the program or is ordered to do so by the referee, whichever is earlier, and ending when the competitor resumes the performance.

Judge

An individual sixteen years of age or older who has been trained and appointed to officiate at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Judges

An individual sixteen years of age or older who has been trained and appointed to officiate at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Jump Combination

Singles and Pairs: Two or more jumps in which the landing foot of the first jump is the take-off foot of the next jump and so on. There is no change of foot or turn between the jumps, although the toe may be used to assist the take-off. One full revolution on the ice between the jumps (free foot can touch the ice, but no weight transfer) keeps the element within the definition of a jump combination.

Synchronized Skating: Any number of jumps of at least one revolution that may be linked with turns, steps or with a slight touch down.

Jump Combinations

Singles and Pairs: Two or more jumps in which the landing foot of the first jump is the take-off foot of the next jump and so on. There is no change of foot or turn between the jumps, although the toe may be used to assist the take-off. One full revolution on the ice between the jumps (free foot can touch the ice, but no weight transfer) keeps the element within the definition of a jump combination.

Synchronized Skating: Any number of jumps of at least one revolution that may be linked with turns, steps or with a slight touch down.

Jump Element

An individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence.

Jump Elements

An individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence.

Jump Sequence

Singles and Pairs:  Two jumps of any number of revolutions, beginning with a listed jump immediately followed by an axel-type jump with a direct step from the landing curve of the first jump to the take-off curve of the axel jump.  

Synchronized Skating: Consists of any number of jumps of any number of revolutions that may be linked with small hops and dance jumps, immediately following each other while maintaining the jump rhythm (knee); there can be no crossovers or stroking between jumps during the sequence.

Loop

A one-foot movement where the skater skates an oval pattern using the same edge. The entry and exit of the loop must cross. The loop must be clean cut without scrapes or points.

Lutz

A toe jump with counter rotation that takes off from a backward outside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of revolutions. 

Measures

A unit of music which is defined by the periodic recurrence of the accent. Such units are of equal number of beats.

Member

Each entity that meets the requirements of any of the three Member classes as defined in Article 3 hereof [of the bylaws].

 

Members

Each entity that meets the requirements of any of the three Member classes as defined in Article 3 hereof [of the bylaws].

 

Program Component

The mark given by a judge to assess the different aspects of a skater’s performance. There are five PCs: Skating Skills, Transitions, Performance, Composition, and Interpretation. The Program Components marking range is from 0.25 to 10.0.   

Program Components

The mark given by a judge to assess the different aspects of a skater’s performance. There are five PCs: Skating Skills, Transitions, Performance, Composition, and Interpretation. The Program Components marking range is from 0.25 to 10.0.   

Referee

A referee of an event within a competition is an experienced judge who has received further training to conduct an event and monitor the performance of the panel of judges. Referees are qualified to referee or judge at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Referees

A referee of an event within a competition is an experienced judge who has received further training to conduct an event and monitor the performance of the panel of judges. Referees are qualified to referee or judge at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Registrant

Includes (i) an individual who is registered by a Club or Skating School with Skate Canada and who is subject to all applicable rules, regulations and policies of Skate Canada but who is not a Member; and (ii) an individual who is engaged in any activity provided, sponsored, supported, sanctioned or recognized by Skate Canada and registered directly with Skate Canada but who is not a Member.

Roll

A short or long, forward or backward edge skated on a curve.

Salchow

An edge jump with natural rotation that takes off from a backward inside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of rotations.

Section

As defined in Section 8.1 hereof [of the bylaws].

Segment

The name given to a portion of an event.  Some categories have two segments (e.g., short program and free program) and some categories have only one segment.

Sequence

The set order of the prescribed steps that compose one pattern of a Pattern Dance.

Sequences

The set order of the prescribed steps that compose one pattern of a Pattern Dance.

Sit Position

Singles and Pairs: A basic spin position with the upper part of the skating leg at least parallel to the ice.

Ice Dance: A basic spin position performed on one foot with skating leg bent in a one-legged crouch position and free leg forward, to the side or back.

Sit Spin

A spin in which the skater remains in a sit position while rotating.  The supporting leg must be bent at least to a ninety-degree angle.  The thigh of the skating foot must be parallel to the ice surface.

Skating School

An organization other than a Club that is operating for the general purpose of providing Skate Canada skating programs.

Spin

An element where the skater rapidly revolves, centred on a single point on the ice, while holding one or more body positions.  In singles and pairs, a spin must have at least three revolutions to be considered a spin. The minimum number of revolutions in a position is two without interruption.

Spins

An element where the skater rapidly revolves, centred on a single point on the ice, while holding one or more body positions.  In singles and pairs, a spin must have at least three revolutions to be considered a spin. The minimum number of revolutions in a position is two without interruption.

Spiral

A gliding position executed on one foot with free leg extended (including knee and foot) above hip level.

Spiral Sequence

A collection of at least two spirals executed on different feet.  The spirals must not be separated by other elements such as jumps or spins.  Some categories have requirements for the number of steps between the spirals, supported/unsupported and/or skating direction of the spirals.

Spirals

A gliding position executed on one foot with free leg extended (including knee and foot) above hip level.

Step

The visible tracing on the ice that is executed on one foot. A step is counted each time there is a change of foot.

Technical Controllers

An individual sixteen years of age or older who is responsible for accurate technical panel process and authorizes, corrects, deletes and adds elements to the list of elements performed during an event. Technical controllers are qualified to act on panels at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Technical Specialists

An individual sixteen years of age or older who identifies elements and levels of difficulty of elements in competition. The technical specialist also identifies falls and illegal elements. Technical specialists are qualified to act on panels at or below a specified level of competition in one or more of singles, pairs, ice dance or synchronized skating.

Tempo

The speed of the music in beats or measures per minute.

Toe Loop

A toe jump with natural rotation that takes off from a backward outside edge; listed in the Scale of Values according to the number of rotations. 

Tracking

The spatial relationship of two skaters moving together on a curve or a straight line.  The tracings left on the ice represent each skater’s tracking pattern.

Transition

A term used to describe sections of the program that occur within elements, during entrances and exits of elements and as connecting elements and executed in-between the required/optional elements.

Turn

A rotational movement in which the skater moves from forward to backward or backward to forward using one foot and on an edge and axis (e.g. Three-turn, Bracket). In a two-foot turn the rotational movement from forward to backward or backward to forward is from one foot to the other foot (e.g. Mohawk, Choctaw).

Turns

A rotational movement in which the skater moves from forward to backward or backward to forward using one foot and on an edge and axis (e.g. Three-turn, Bracket). In a two-foot turn the rotational movement from forward to backward or backward to forward is from one foot to the other foot (e.g. Mohawk, Choctaw).

Upright Position

Singles and Pairs: Any spin position with the skating leg extended or slightly bent which is not a camel position.

Ice Dance: A basic spin position performed on one foot with skating leg straight or slightly bent and upper body upright (on a nearly vertical axis), arched back or bent to side.

Upright Spin

The skater is spinning in an upright position, a minimum of three revolutions.  The arms and free foot may be held in a variety of positions.

Waltz Jump

An edge jump with natural rotation taken off from a forward outside edge.  This jump is one half a rotation and is included as a listed jump in the Skate Canada Scale of Values but is not included in the ISU Scale of Values.

Acknowledgments

Skate Canada gratefully acknowledges the time, effort and expertise of the following individuals in com- posing and assembling this guide:

Author: Reaghan Fawcett Fortin

Editor/reviewer: Jeremiah Stanghini, Meredith Warner and Marianne Pushavetz

Many thanks to the contributors of previous evaluator/judge training manuals.

Special thanks to: The BC/YK Section, especially Laura Carr and Janice Hunter, for their work in creating and piloting many aspects of the STAR 1-5 program

Skate Canada staff, especially Dr. Patricia Chafe

Section 1: Introduction and Objectives

Welcome To Skate Canada Officiating

Welcome to the STAR 1-4 judge seminar. Skate Canada is very pleased that you have chosen to pursue officiating as an extension of your own skating experiences. We hope that you will find judging a rewarding and enjoyable process that will inspire you to continue your involvement with the sport in the coming months and years.

Skate Canada would like to thank you for volunteering your time and making an important contribution to our sport where skaters participate for fun, fitness, and/or achievement.

Overview

The goal of the STAR 1-4 judge seminar is to prepare prospective judges to serve as contributing members of STAR 1-4 event judging panels with confidence and success.

To achieve this goal and through participation in the seminar, prospective judges will:

  • Receive an overview of the STAR 1-4 event structure
  • Gain the necessary STAR 1-4 technical knowledge that will enable them to accurately apply the standards of assessment for all technical elements and program components
  • Participate in mock panels to simulate a STAR event experience
  • Learn the duties and competencies required of STAR 1-4 judges
  • Be introduced to the roles and responsibilities of a referee
  • Become familiar with STAR event procedures
  • Receive direction on next steps for appointment as a STAR 1-4 judge following the clinic

The materials covered in this manual along with the discussions and activities in your seminar will prepare you to judge your first STAR event and provide you with a solid knowledge base upon which you can continue to build and grow your judging abilities. 

To be appointed as a STAR 1-4 Judge, candidates must receive a positive STAR 1-4 seminar assessment which will consider:

  1. Element Identification Exercise
  2. Assessment Criteria Exercise
  3. Overall interpersonal skills and deportment

Throughout this manual and training seminar, you will see references to STAR 1-4 as well as STAR 5. While STAR 5 is outside the scope of this clinic, at times it will be referenced to provide new judges with an overview of the entire STAR program.

We hope that you will be inspired and encouraged to continue with STAR judging and perhaps continue on to pursue judging at higher levels within Skate Canada.

Who Are Officials?

Officials are valued members of Skate Canada who donate their time, knowledge and expertise to assist in the development of our athletes. In figure skating, there are many different categories and types of officials, each with a specific job to do.

In the sport of figure skating all officials are volunteers who are involved in skating because of their love of the sport and to assist in the development of both skaters and skating in this country. Their reward is to see skaters grow and improve throughout the years.

Officials can provide their expertise in various capacities within the organization, for example, by officiating at test days and events, monitoring skaters and leading clinics. The event side of officiating is the focus of this training.

An event official is an individual who helps to determine the results of figure skating competitions in Canada. These officials are: judges, referees, technical officials and data specialists.

In STAR 1-4, events are judged by a STAR panel consisting of three STAR judges. They work as a team to identify elements and assess the quality of these elements at the same time.

The STAR judging panel functions as a combination of a judging panel and a technical panel.

Who Can Become a STAR 1-4 Judge?

Individuals who meet the following criteria are eligible to become trained as STAR 1-4 judges:

  • Must be at least 16 years old (may be under 16 at time of training)
  • Must be an eligible person as defined by Skate Canada regulations
  • It is preferred, but not required, that STAR 1-4 judges have a skating background

Section 2: STAR 1-5 Overview

Event Structure

How does the STAR 1-5 event system fit into Skate Canada programming? 

  • The STAR 1-5 events are the bridge between CanSkate and the rest of STAR or the start CompetitiveSkate competitions
  • Skaters exiting the STAR 1-5 system can continue with STAR events or CompetitiveSkate events (depending on age and test level)
  • Skaters can choose the competition stream that fits their needs/goals
  • Skaters will continue to have the option to transition between these two streams based on age and test level

 

Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD)

Sport Canada has mandated all Canadian amateur sport organizations to revise their programming to reflect their athlete development research findings and align with LTAD philosophies. This model provides a pathway for an athlete to progress successfully through each sport.

The Skate Canada LTAD model tells us:

  • How skaters develop based on age and maturation
  • What skills they should focus on developing/refining at each phase of development (windows of trainability)
  • How often they should be competing based on their level (ratio of training to competing)

Skate Canada LTAD Model and Corresponding Programs

LTAD Model

Skate Canada Programs

Learn to Skate

CanSkate

Learn to Train

STAR 1-5 program and STAR 1-5 events

Learn to Compete

Pre-Juvenile to Pre-Novice and STAR 6 to Gold (depending on age)

Train to Compete

Novice to Senior

Learn to Win/Live to Win

High Performance Athletes competing at International, World and Olympic competitions

Active for Life

Individuals outside the LTAD pathway (e.g. higher level STAR, AdultSkate, CollegiateSkate, Special Olympics and adaptive skaters etc.)

The Goals of LTAD

    To create a positive and valuable sport experience for participants that promotes and encourages individuals to be active for life
  • To provide programming that is developmentally appropriate for the age and stage of the participants
  • To encourage skaters to focus on achieving excellence as opposed to results
  • To introduce competitive aspects in the right way and at the right time
  • To encourage skaters to develop a love of performing
  • To provide enhanced feedback on performance for skaters, parents and coaches
  • To develop and communicate specific criteria for evaluation and calculation of results that will be clear and available to all stakeholders

STAR 1-5 Events

The STAR 1-5 event structure is intended to:

  • Align with the principles of LTAD
  • Introduce the CPC judging system concepts to our youngest skaters
  • Move skating away from 6.0 assessment system
  • Put focus on training/skill acquisition versus competing for the sake of competing
  • Make this level of the sport more affordable for participants and parents
  • Take advantage of developing flexibility and speed between six and 10 years of age
  • Encourage young skaters to start trying to interpret music
  • Encourage skaters to acquire key skills (landing positions, stroking, ) at an earlier age
  • Align with the STAR 1-5 assessment program and provide external assessment in a safe environment

Overview of STAR 1-5

 

STAR 1

STAR 2

STAR 3

STAR 4

STAR 5

Format

Group

Individual

Individual

Individual

Individual

Content

Elements

Free Program

Free Program

Free Program

Free Program

Results

Assessed to Standard

Assessed to Standard

Assessed to Standard

Assessed to Standard and Ranked

Ranked

  • As skaters’ progress in level, the STAR 1-5 system progresses:
    • From a group to an individual format
    • From performing elements in isolation to performing a free program
    • From being assessed to a standard to being ranked
  • The intent is for skaters to compete at the level that is right for them at the right time
  • STAR 1-5 skaters should move between levels as appropriate
  • Skaters can move between multiple levels in one season

Assessment to Standard

Skaters in STAR 1-4 will be assessed against a standard for each element and program component. The following table describes the correlation between the assessment standards of Gold, Silver, Bronze and Merit with the expected level of development of skaters.

GOLD

SILVER

BRONZE

MERIT

Performance exceeds development standard for level

Performance is at development standard for level

Performance is slightly below development standard for level

Performance is significantly below development standard for level


Judges always need to keep in mind that the expected level of development is different for each level of STAR
. The expected level of development for a STAR 4 skater is much higher than a STAR 2 skater, for example. The same single Salchow performed in a STAR 2 and a STAR 4 event would not necessarily receive the same rating. This element might meet the standard for a Gold in STAR 2, but might only meet the standard for a Silver in STAR 4 as the skater has a higher expected level of development.

STAR 5

Skaters in STAR 5 are no longer assessed against a standard as in STAR 1-4. In STAR 5, skaters will be ranked within their groups and will be judged using the Cumulative Points Calculation (CPC) system.

  • Each element (i.e. jump, spin or step sequence) is worth a specific point value
  • In some elements, skaters can increase the point value by adding difficulty to their elements
  • Skaters are also assessed on four program components
  • A skater receives a Total Score at the end of his/her performance that is made up of a Technical Score and a Program Component Score. He/she receives a detailed scorecard with scores for each element and program component from each judge

In the CPC system of judging there are two sets of officials:

  1. Technical Panel: Identifies elements and determines the difficulty level of certain elements (also identifies falls and bonuses as applicable).
  2. Judging Panel: Assigns quality marks to each element (Grades of Execution or GOEs) (also applies deductions as applicable). The judging panel also assigns program component scores for five aspects of a skater’s program.

Section 3: STAR 1-4 Technical Training

Identifying Elements 

Each STAR judge must be able to correctly identify all the elements executed by skaters in STAR 1-4.

Jumps

Spins

Spirals

Turns

Waltz Jump

Backward Upright Spin

Forward Spiral Sequence

Turn Sequence

Single Salchow

Forward Upright Spin

 

 

Single Toe Loop

Sit Spin

 

 

Single Loop

Camel Spin

 

 

Single Flip

Combination Spin

 

 

Single Lutz

 

 

 

Single Axel

 

 

 

Combination Jumps

 

 

 


Recording Skills 

Each judge must be able to record elements and information about these elements as they are completed. Judges must also be able to record and capture information about other aspects of a skater’s performance such as edge quality, carriage and ability to connect to the music. This must all be done in the most efficient way possible to minimize the amount of time that a judge’s eyes are not on the skater. A judge must:

  • Take notes to help make sound decisions based on the standards
  • Quickly refer to notes after every skater
  • Be prepared to provide feedback if requested by skaters/coaches

In general, there are two types of information that a STAR 1-4 judge must record:

  1. Technical - jumps, spins, spirals and turn sequences
  2. Program Components:
    • Skating skills (STAR 2, STAR 3 and STAR 4)
    • Performance (STAR 2, STAR 3 and STAR 4)
    • Interpretation (STAR 3 and STAR 4)

Tips and Tricks

Become familiar with the marking sheet. Know where to record information so that time is not spent looking on the sheet instead of looking at the skater.

Know the element codes and have a system of shorthand developed to record information quickly. Write with a pencil to prevent smudging and so that errors can be erased if needed.

Have multiple pencils available in case they break.

Reach a quick decision at the end of each program by recording useful information during the performance (i.e. keywords or symbols that correspond to the assessment criteria - Good, Weak, Strong, Lacking).

Element Codes 

While each judge may have their own preferred way of recording information about an element, the Official Marking Sheet that is submitted to the data specialists must contain the official element codes.

Skate Canada Learn to Train Officials Quick Reference Guide

Jumps

Spins

Waltz Jump

1W

Forward Upright Spin

USp

Single Toe Loop

1T

Backward Upright Spin

BUSp

Single Salchow

1S

Sit Spin

SSp

Single Loop

1Lo

Camel Spin

CSp

Single Flip

1F

Combination Spin

CoSp

Single Lutz

1Lz

Change Combo Spin

CCoSp

Single Axel

1A

Forward Spiral Sequence

FSpSq

Single Axel Downgrade (STAR 4 only)

1A<<

Turn Sequence

TrSq

Jump Combinations

Jump+Jump

 

 


Note: Judges must only write the attempted elements as the Executed Element using the codes listed above. Rotation and edge symbols (i.e. <, << or ‘e’, ‘!’) cannot be entered into the system in STAR 1-4. The only exception to this is the Axel in STAR 4; it may receive the sign <<.

Shorthand System

Here are some ideas on how a judge can record WHAT each skater performs, as well as ways to capture HOW WELL the skater has performed each element or program component.

Element/PC

Comments

Meaning

1A+1T+C

Poor form on landing

 CoSp

 

3 revs in each position; position quality weak Slow

 1F

 

 Good flow/speed

FSpSq

 RF3 pos wk, LF4 ok

Right foot spiral held for 3 seconds, but position was weak. Left foot spiral held for 4 seconds with ok position

1A<<

X

Fall

 Skating Skills

 

Lacks speed, edges not smooth – scratchy at times.

Lacks flow

Performance

 

Good positions throughout; good projection and frequent eye contact with audience


A system of symbols and shorthand:

  • Allows a judge to quickly record quality comments about each skater
  • Assists in the assessment of performance against the standard for each element or program component
  • Can grow or change over time
  • Can be expanded by learning from other judges and referees

Assessment Skills

One of the key responsibilities of a STAR judge is to accurately assess the quality of elements and other skating abilities. To do this, there are three main steps:

Step 1:    Understand and recognize quality aspects of skating

Step 2:    Read and understand the assessment criteria for each STAR level

Step 3:    Understand the expectations for each STAR level and accurately assess the quality of skating in relation to the level of the skater.

Assessing Quality 

In general, good quality skating or elements will be rewarded with higher scores than skating or elements executed with poor quality.

What is Quality?

  • The elements that a skater executes in a program are WHAT they do
  • Quality is HOW WELL they do them

 Quality is what makes an aspect of a skater’s program or element stand out as strong or weak. Quality can be demonstrated in every aspect of a skater’s performance, including:

  • Basic skating skills such as stroking ability, edges, and turns
  • Execution of technical elements
  • Carriage and form throughout the elements/program
  • The degree to which a skater is able to interpret the music

Assessing Quality in Program Components

Skating Skills

Skating skills are the fundamental building blocks upon which all skating is based. In the STAR 1-4 system, judges will see skaters who have learned “how to skate” and are progressing into figure skating as a sport.

The expectation is that skaters will exit the CanSkate system with many skills and will demonstrate:

  • Proper technique using the side of the blade in crosscuts
  • Proficiency in stroking, both directions (clockwise/counter-clockwise)
  • Reasonable balance and control of FO edges
  • Reasonable lean, balance and power while stroking

In the STAR 1-4 system, skaters will build on these areas as they continue to develop. There is an expectation, therefore, that skating skills will improve skaters’ progress from STAR 1 to STAR 4.

The areas for assessment of Skating Skills for STAR 1-4 skaters are:

  • Technique
  • Power
  • Execution

Technique

Technique refers to how a skater uses his/her skating ability to move across the ice.

In assessing technique, judges determine whether a skater has demonstrated the proper skating mechanics. A skater who uses proper technique should be rewarded with a higher Skating Skills assessment than a skater who uses weak or improper technique.

Judges should assess a skater’s technique by considering the following during a skater’s performance:

  • Does the skater push correctly from the side of the blade?
  • Is the strength of the thrust approximately the same from each foot?
  • Is the knee action soft and consistent?
  • Is the posture upright or does it break at the hips with each stroke?
  • Does the skater have sufficient control?

 Power

Using proper technique, skaters should demonstrate the ability to generate speed using power. Skaters who demonstrate this ability should be rewarded with a higher Skating Skills assessment than those who skate slowly and/or who lack power in their skating. The following should be considered:

  • Is the stroking powerful in relation to the skater’s body composition?
  • Does the skater maintain speed throughout the program or is it limited to small sections in the program?
  • Does the skater generate speed only during crosscuts or is he/she able to generate speed coming out of elements?

Execution

Execution encompasses control of edges, body lean and balance.

Edges are the fundamental building blocks for skill development in skating. Judges should assess whether a skater demonstrates control on clean, defined edges.

  • Do edges or flats predominate in the performance?
  • Does the skater show smooth control of the edge?
  • Is the edge noisy or quiet?
  • Are a skater’s edges sure or are there wobbles, e. losses of control?

Body Lean enables a skater to generate depth of edge.

  • Does the skater establish the lean of the edge from the push-off?
  • Does the skater maintain the correct lean for the duration of the edge?
  • Does the skater change lean easily from one edge to the next?

Balance is the ability of a skater to remain in control of edges and body lean.

  • Does the skater demonstrate good balance by being able to glide?
  • Does the skater maintain balance while stroking?
  • Does the skater demonstrate balance while executing turns?
  • Is the transition from one foot to the other controlled and smooth?
  • Does the skater step solidly onto the new skating foot?

Stages of Skating Skills Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Early Stage of Development

Stroking Technique

Pushes from side of blade

Equal thrust on both feet in crosscuts

Correct knee action

Generally, pushes from side of blade

One dominant thrust may be evident

Some knee bend evident

Thrust technique not properly executed

Little knee bend – stroking choppy

Some toe-pushing may be evident

Power

Demonstrates ability to accelerate and maintain speed

Demonstrates reasonable maintenance of speed

Skater seems slow

Unable to generate and maintain speed

Movements may seem laboured

Execution

Skates on true edges

Strong body lean demonstrated

Skater has consistent balance

Edges of moderate quality

Some body lean demonstrated

Generally balanced

Weak edges and wobbles

Little to no body lean demonstrated

Balance inconsistent or wea

Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

*Although STAR 1 is not assessed in Skating Skills, development in this area is still taking place.

Performance

Performance is the aspect of a skater’s program that combines ability to perform with reasonably correct and pleasing positions.

At the STAR 1-4 level, performance is assessed on the following:

  • Carriage
  • Projection

Carriage

Carriage is the ability to skate with correct form and positions. In STAR 1-4, skaters should be able to demonstrate the early stages of good form and body lines. To assess carriage, judges should consider the following:

  • The upper body should demonstrate a strong core stance without restricting the fluid movement of the arms. As the knees go through their actions, the core should remain stable allowing the power to be transferred to the
  • Skaters should demonstrate strength in the core without breaking at the waist when transitioning between positions
  • Skaters should place arms in aesthetically pleasing positions and should hold them with purpose
  • The free leg should be extended in an aesthetically pleasing position and should be held with tension and purpose
  • Skaters should also demonstrate the early stages of flexibility and the ability to hold the free leg above hip level when executing spirals and/or camel spins, with some free leg extension

Projection

Projection is the ability of a skater to project confidence to the audience and judges during the performance. To assess projection, judges should consider the following:

  • Does the skater look up while skating or are the eyes focused downwards towards the ice?
  • Is the skater committed to the movements within the program?
  • Does the skater skate with a sense of confidence that the judges and audience can feel during the performance?
  • Does the energy in a skater’s performance stay the same throughout or does it fade after the first 10 seconds as the focus turns to executing the elements?
  • Does the energy level in a skater’s performance diminish when errors occur?

 Stages of Performance Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Early Stage of Development

Carriage

The skater has comfortable upright carriage and good form

Demonstrates strong core

Body positions are generally pleasing

The skater has reasonable form and generally upright carriage

Moderate core strength

Body positions have moderate extension

Form weak with weaknesses observed in carriage

Skater lacks core strength

Body positions are not fully extended

Projection

•         The skater is committed to all movements

•         The skater appears confident during the performance

•                  The skater’s level of commitment to the movements varies during the performance

•                  The skater’s level of confidence is moderate

The skater lacks commitment to the movements

The skater’s focus is down toward the ice

The skater appears apprehensive or unsure during the performance

Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

*Although STAR 1 is not assessed in Performance, development in this area is still taking place.

Interpretation

Interpretation refers to the connection that a skater has with the music. Interpretation is assessed only in STAR 3 and STAR 4. At these levels there are two general areas that judges will be assessing:

  • Movement in time to the music
  • Expression of the music’s character 

Movement in Time to the Music

To assess this criterion, judges must consider the movements and positions that the skater is executing and decide if these relate to the beat of the music:

  • Does the skater change the pace of movement to correspond to changes in pace of the music?
  • If there was no music playing, could someone tell by watching the skater when the music switched from fast to slow or vice versa?

Expression of the Music’s Character

To assess this criterion, judges need to look at whether a skater demonstrates any kind of movements that match the character of the music. The character of the music refers to the personality or type of music that the skater is using in the program:

  • If the music is a Tango or is Spanish, are the movements sharp and/or quick?
  • If the music is soft and flowing, are soft and flowing arm movements included?
  • If the music is fun and playful, is this reflected in the movements?
  • If the music is rock and roll, are related movements included?

Stages of Interpretation Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Earliest Stage of Development

Movement in time to music

The skater matches his/ her pace to the pace of the music

The skater demonstrates multiple movements that match the timing of the music

The skater may only demonstrate a connection to the pace of the music for brief moments

The skater demonstrates a small number of movements that match the timing of the music

The skater does not match his/her pace at all to the pace of the music

The skater does not demonstrate any movements that are connected to the timing of the music

Movement reflecting character of music

The skater includes multiple movements that relate to the character of the music

The skater includes a small number of movements that relate to the character of the music

The skater does not include any movements that connect with the character of the music

 Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

 

*Although STAR 1 and STAR 2 are not assessed in Interpretation, development in this area is still taking place.

Assessing Quality in Jump Elements

Jump elements must be identified by each judge and must also be assessed in terms of quality. There are four phases of a jump element:

  1. Preparation
  2. Take-Off
  3. Flight
  4. Landing

For STAR 1-4 jump assessment, there are three main criteria that judges should consider:

  • Rotation
  • Execution
  • Landing

Rotation

A well-executed jump should have full rotation completed in the air and should not have any rotation completed on the ice.

Judges must consider whether a jump has full rotation or has less than full rotation when making assessments.

  • A jump that has more than ¼, but less than ½ of its revolutions completed on the ice is considered under- rotated (<).
  • A jump that has ½ or more of its revolutions completed on the ice is considered down-graded (<<).

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for rotation at each STAR level.

Execution

Execution refers to the overall quality of each jump element. Several considerations must be considered when assessing execution including the level of a skater.

To arrive at an assessment of execution, judges must assess the quality of the following phases of a jump:

  1. Preparation
    1. Is the jump approached with speed, a strong position and a strong edge?
    2. Is the entry edge a constant radius with consistent speed?
  2. Take-Off
    1. Does the jump lift off the ice with ease?
    2. Is the take-off edge clean?
  3. Flight (not including rotation)
    1. Does the jump have good height and distance?
    2. Does the jump convert to a proper back-spin position?
    3. Is the body carriage/line straight in the air?
    4. Are all body positions controlled throughout the flight?

Judges are reminded that, similar to the Stages of Development in program component development, there are also different technical expectations of skaters in the different STAR levels.

The expectations for ratings at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for “good height and distance” on a jump executed by a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for execution at each STAR level.

Landing

Judges must also consider the landing phase of each executed jump.

  1. Landing
    1. Does the landing carry flow?
    2. Is the landing on a clean, smooth edge?
    3. Is the landing arc equal to the take-off edge arc?
    4. Is the landing position held with good form?

The length and position on the landing of a jump indicates the degree of control that a skater has over this last phase of the element.

The expectations for each rating at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for “good form” on a jump landing for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for landings at each STAR level.

Stages of Jump Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Early Stage of Development

Execution

Jump height exceeds expectation relative to skater composition

Jump distance exceeds expectation relative to skater composition

Correct air position

Jump height meets expectation relative to skater composition

Jump distance meets expectation relative to skater composition

Jump height below expectation relative to skater composition

Jump distance below expectation relative to skater composition

Incorrect air position

Landing

Upright posture maintained

Fully extended free leg

Deep knee bend in landing leg

Slight break in upright posture

Partial extension of free leg

Slight knee bend in landing leg

Significant break in posture

Lack of free leg extension

No knee bend in landing leg

Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

Assessing Quality in Spin Elements

Spin elements must be identified and the quality of execution must be considered. There are four phases of a spin element:

  1. Preparation
  2. Entry
  3. Rotation
  4. Exit

 For STAR 1-4 spin assessment, there are three main criteria that judges should consider:

  • Positions
  • Edge Quality
  • Execution Positions

Positions

Skaters will be assessed on the quality of the spinning position within the spins that are included in an element or program. Counting of revolutions should begin from the point where a skater reaches the position.

Two types of positions are considered in STAR 1-4:

  • Basic Position: The skater reaches the correct basic position(s) as per the definitions
  • Attempted position: The skater’s spinning position does not meet the definition of a basic position.

Definition of Basic Position in three types of spins:

Upright Spin – Any position with extended or slightly bent skating leg that is not a camel position.

Sit Spin – The upper part of the skating leg is at least parallel to the ice.

Camel Spin – Free leg backwards with the knee higher than hip level.

Basic Upright Position Basic Camel Position Basic Sit Position

The expectations for each rating at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for ‘good body line’ in a spin position for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for position quality at each STAR level.

Edge Quality

Edge quality can be observed and assessed in all spins, and is of particular importance on the completion of the Backward Upright Spin. It is expected that skaters will attempt to spin on the correct edges in all of their spins.

The expectations for each rating at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for “good edge quality” in a spin for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for edge quality at each of the STAR levels.

Execution

Judges must consider the quality of the execution in each phase of the spin elements.

  1. Preparation
    1. Is the spin approached with speed and strong carriage?
    2. Is the speed on entry appropriate and controlled?
  2. Entry
    1. Does the spiraling edge convert quickly to the ball of the foot?
  3. Rotation
    1. Is the spin position strong and controlled?
    2. Is the rotation fast and well-centered?
    3. Does the spin increase, maintain or decrease in speed?
  4. Exit
    1. Is the termination of rotation well-controlled with good body position?

 The expectations for each rating at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for “good execution” for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for spin execution at each STAR level.

Stages of Spin Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Early Stage of Development

Position

Solid posture maintained

Full free leg extension

Slight break in posture

Partial free leg extension

Significant break in posture

No free leg extension

Execution

Fast speed of rotation maintained or accelerated during spin

Control on exit

Moderate speed of rotation maintained during spin

Slight loss of control on exit

Slow speed of rotation or loss of speed during spin

Full loss of control on exit

Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

Assessing Quality in Spiral Circle and Spiral Sequence Elements

Each skater in STAR 1 to 4 must complete a spiral circle exercise or spiral sequence within the elements or program.

The requirements for the spiral circle and spiral sequence are as follows:

  • One spiral on an edge of each foot must be performed
  • Each spiral must be held for a specified amount of time
  • Each spiral must be held in the defined spiral position
  • Both spirals must be unsupported
  • Spirals must be performed forward

 Spiral sequences only:

  • Edges (inside/outside) of the spirals are the skater’s choice
  • STAR 2: Must be a sequence of two spirals with no more than eight steps in between spirals
  • STAR 3/4: Must be a sequence of two spirals with no more than four steps in between spirals Judges should assess the spiral element using the following criteria:
  • Position
  • Duration
  • Execution Position

Judges must consider the quality of the spiral positions throughout the exercise or sequence and determine the following:

  • Does the skater achieve a full spiral position?
  • Does the skater have pleasing body lines in the spiral position?

The definition of a spiral: A sustained edge with the free leg above the level of the skating hip.

  • The skating leg and the free leg should be extended with tension and purpose
  • The toe of the skating leg should be pointed to the side or slightly up
  • The skater should show strength in the core and arm positions
Not a full spiral position Not a full spiral position (supported spiral) Full spiral position - weak position Full spiral position - good position

The expectations for each rating at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for “good lines and flexibility” for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for spiral position quality at each STAR level.

Duration

Judges must be able to determine the length of time that the skater holds a spiral in the required basic position.

  • Judges should begin counting once the skater has reached the basic position
  • If the skater’s free leg drops below hip level, the judge must stop counting
  • If the free leg returns to above hip level then the judge should begin counting again, starting at one

The expectations for each rating at each STAR level must be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for duration of spirals for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for spiral duration at each STAR level.

Execution

Judges must consider the quality of the execution of the spiral exercise or spiral sequence element and assess the following areas:

  1. Balance and control of spiral edge
    1. Skaters should demonstrate control of the edge with no wobbles or losses of balance
  2. Edge quality
    1. Skaters should execute spirals on a solid edge on a curve
  3. Execution of correct spiral
    1. Spirals must both be performed Backward spirals are not permitted
    2. Spirals must be unsupported. Any support given to the free leg/foot or skate by one of the skater’s arms is considered ‘support’ and is not
Supported spiral Supported spiral

The expectations for each rating at each STAR level should be considered in relation to the level of the skater. This means that the expectation for ‘good execution’ for a STAR 4 skater will be higher than what is expected from a STAR 1 or 2 skater.

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for spiral execution at each STAR level.

Stages of Spiral Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Early Stage of Development

Position

Solid posture maintained

Full free leg extension

Slight break in posture

Partial free leg extension

Significant break in posture

No free leg extension

Execution

Fully defined edges

Consistent balance

Moderately defined edges

Generally balanced

Weak edges and/or wobbles

Inconsistent or weak balance

 Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

Assessing Quality in Turn Sequence Elements 

In STAR 2, each skater must complete a turn sequence element within the program. A turn sequence is a series of defined turns and steps.

The turn sequence element is assessed using the following criteria:

  • Technique
  • Power
  • Execution

Technique

When assessing technique, a judge must determine whether a skater has demonstrated proper mechanics in a turn sequence.

The assessment of a skater’s technique is determined by considering the following:

  • Does the skater push correctly from the side of the blade?
  • Is the strength of the thrust approximately the same on each foot?
  • Are the turns executed on the correct edges?

Power

Power measures the ability of a skater to generate and maintain speed. When assessing power, a judge considers:

  • Are the crosscuts powerful in relation to the skater’s body composition?
  • Does the skater demonstrate the ability to accelerate?
  • Does the skater maintain speed throughout the sequence 

Execution

The assessment of execution is based on the balance and control demonstrated during the sequence. Execution is determined by considering:

  • Does the skater demonstrate stability? Are the edges sure or are there wobbles, i.e. losses of control?
  • Does the skater demonstrate balance while executing turns?
  • Is the transition from one foot to the other solid, controlled and smooth?

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for turn sequence at the STAR 2 level.

 

Stages of Turn Sequence Development

Criteria

Advanced Stage of Development

Moderate Stage of Development

Early Stage of Development

Technique

All pushes from side of the blade

Rhythmic knee bend used for correct turn action

Defined entry and exit edges

All pushes from side of the blade

Rhythmic knee bend used for correct turn action

Defined entry and exit edges

Lacking side of the blade pushes

Little knee bend used for incorrect turn action

Flat or incorrect entry and exit edges

Power

Speed maintained and accelerated

Sure, strong movements

Speed maintained

Moderately strong movements

Speed not generated or maintained

Laboured movements

Execution

Defined edge quality

Strong body lean

Consistent balance

Moderate edge quality

Some body lean

Generally balanced

Weak edges and/or wobbles

 Little/no body lean

Inconsistent or weak balance

 Continuum of STAR 1-4 Skill Development

Assessing Quality in Circle Stroking

 A STAR 1 skater must complete a circle stroking exercise to receive an assessment on forward and backward stroking.

 A judge assesses the circle stroking exercise using the following criteria:

  • Technique
  • Power
  • Execution

Technique

When assessing technique, a judge must determine whether a skater has demonstrated proper stroking mechanics.

The assessment of a skater’s technique is determined by considering the following:

  • Does the skater push correctly from the side of the blade?
  • Is the strength of the thrust approximately the same on each foot?
  • Is the knee action soft and consistent?

Power

Power measures the ability of a skater to generate and maintain speed. When assessing power, a judge considers:

  • Are the crosscuts powerful in relation to the skater’s body composition?
  • Does the skater demonstrate the ability to accelerate?
  • Does the skater maintain speed throughout the circle stroking both forwards and backwards?

Execution

The assessment of execution is based on the balance and control demonstrated during the sequence. Execution is determined by considering:

  • Does the skater demonstrate stability? Are the edges sure or are there wobbles, i.e. losses of control?
  • Does the skater demonstrate balance while executing crosscuts?
  • Is the transition from one foot to the other solid, controlled and smooth?

Please refer to the Assessment Criteria in the current STAR Competition Program Requirements for details on the expectations for circle stroking at the STAR 1 level.

STAR 1 Events

  • STAR 1 is the first level of STAR
  • Designed for those skaters who have exited CanSkate and wish to pursue more sport specific/ figure skating skills and development
  • The STAR 1 event is organized in a group format that is meant to be fun and enjoyable for the skater’s first event experience
  • Coaches should stay on the ice with the skaters in STAR events to help relieve their anxiety about participating in a skating event for the first time
  • Focus during the event is on assessing key skills compared to a standard as opposed to placing or ranking skaters first, second or third

STAR 1 Technical Content

For a list of the most current technical requirements for STAR 1, please refer to the STAR Competition Program Requirements.

STAR 1 skaters will complete the following types of elements/exercises:

  • Circle Stroking
  • Jump Elements
  • Spin Elements
  • Forward Spiral Circles
  • Creative Expression Exercise

STAR 1 Standards of Assessment

For the most current STAR 1 Assessment Criteria, please refer to the STAR Competition Program Requirements.

When assessing each element in STAR 1, judges will use a majority rule for determining the assessment standard. Each element has three Criteria for Assessment and the skater requires two out of three assessments at a level (or higher) to receive that assessment. 

Criteria 1

Criteria 2

Criteria 3

Overall Assessment

Bronze

Silver

Gold

Silver

 For example, if two out of three assessments are at the Silver level or better, the element is assessed as a Silver.

 In STAR 1:

  • If any assessment point is rated as Merit within an element, then the element cannot have a rating higher than
  • If any element has two assessment points rated as Merit, then the element must be rated as Merit.

STAR 1 Priorities

Element

Priorities

 

Stroking Exercise

Demonstrate early development of good crosscut technique (fwd and bwd)

Demonstrate equal skill acquisition in both directions

 

Jumps

Demonstrate fundamental aspects of jumping such as:

  • Proper air position
  • Complete rotation
  • Proper landing position

 

Spins

Demonstrate the ability to:

  • Control revolutions
  • Find a proper balance point

Spiral Sequence

Demonstrate early development of flexibility

Demonstrate control of the spiral positions

Creative Expression Routine

Demonstrate any kind of an attempt to skate to a piece of music


STAR 1 Judging Panel Process

In STAR 1, the judges will work as a team that functions like a combination of a technical panel and a judging panel. As a group, they will identify and determine the assessment for each element.

  1. STAR 1 judging panels normally stand rinkside (e.g., player’s box) close to the area where the skaters will perform their elements
  2. STAR 1 judging panels do not need to wear headsets to communicate as there is no music playing and there is time between the elements for brief discussions
  3. In double-paneled STAR 1 events, there will be two panels of judges and skaters will share the ice
  4. Each judge on a STAR 1 panel has a different role:

 

Role Requirements

Responsibilities

Judge 1

Comfortable in a speaking role

Identifies the element executed and calls the assessment level

Does not write anything down

Judge 2

Comfortable in leading the review process

Familiar with element codes

Records Judge 1’s calls on the official marking sheet

May call “review” if he/she disagrees with the call

Leads the review process (if required)

Judge 3

Participates in the review and discussion of assessments

Good role for a judge or technical official who is new to STAR

Also records Judge 1’s calls on a marking sheet

May call “review” if he/she disagrees with the call

Referee

One of the judges is designated as Referee

Performs regular Referee duties (i.e. oversees event)

  1. As each element is skated, if there is any disagreement or uncertainty about the rating provided by Judge 1, any of the judges may call ‘review’ (including Judge 1 if he/she wishes to discuss the element). Together, the three judges can have a quick discussion and determine the final assessment by reaching a majority agreement.
  2. When there is agreement on all the ratings for a skater, Judge 2 records the final assessments on the official marking
  3. At the conclusion of each group of skaters, the judges hand Judge 2’s marking sheet to the data specialists. The data specialists then calculate the final overall rating for each skater using the majority of

Creative Expression Exercise

In addition to the elements that STAR skaters must execute, STAR 1 skaters must also complete a Creative Expression Exercise. This introduces the concept of skating to music.

  • The event organizers will provide the music
  • Each flight skates to a piece of music 30 seconds in length
  • All skaters from the flight are on the ice at the same time
  • The music is played twice; the first time the skaters can listen to it and practice skating to it
  • The music is played a second time and the skaters simply have to “skate” or “move”
  • The exercise is not assessed for quality, but only as Completed or Not Completed
  • Not Completed means:
    • The skater stood entirely still and made no attempt to move any body part (e.g., arms) and did not attempt to skate
    • The skater stood beside boards and would not take part in the exercise
    • The skater exited the ice and did not complete the

STAR 1 Determining the Result

To determine the final rating for each skater in a STAR 1 event, the data specialists will once again use a majority rule. They will look to find the majority of the seven ratings and this will determine the final assessment. A skater requires at least four ratings at a specific level (or any higher level) to receive the overall assessment.

The Creative Expression Exercise is not considered in the ratings as it is only marked as Complete or Incomplete. However, if the Creative Expression Exercise is marked as an incomplete, the skater will receive an overall rating of Merit, regardless of the ratings achieved on their other elements.

Example: Four of the seven assessments are rated as Silver or better, therefore, the skater is given an Overall Assessment of Silver.

STAR 2 Events 

  • STAR 2 introduces skaters to skating a program and performing elements at the same time
  • As in STAR 1, each element is assessed against a standard by a collaborative team of three judges
  • Program music is just for timing – only two program components are assessed Skating Skills and Performance
  • Focus during the event is on assessing key skills to a standard as opposed to placing or ranking skaters first, second or

STAR 2 Technical Content

For a list of the most current technical requirements for STAR 2, please refer to the STAR Competition Program Requirements.

STAR 2 skaters will complete the following types of elements in their programs:

  • Jump Elements
  • Spin Elements
  • Spiral Sequence
  • Turn Sequence

They will also be assessed on two program components: Skating Skills and Performance.

STAR 2 Standards of Assessment

For the most current STAR 2 Assessment Criteria, please refer to the STAR Competition Program Requirements.

In STAR 2, judges shall use the Assessment Criteria chart to determine the assessments for jump, spin, spiral and turn sequence elements as well as program components. The assessment criteria chart contains detailed descriptions of different quality aspects that judges will observe in the elements and program components.

Similar to STAR 1, each element and program component has two to three different assessment criteria that the judges need to consider when determining their assessments. Judges need to match the quality that they observe with these criteria in order to determine their assessments for the elements and program components.

In STAR 2, each element and program component has required criteria. Ratings for each element and program component cannot exceed the rating for the required criteria.

Remember: For the jump, spin, spiral and turn sequence elements, if a skater falls, the element does not necessarily receive an automatic Merit assessment. If there are positive qualities to the other two assessment criteria, then the element could still receive a Bronze rating.

STAR 2 Priorities

Element

Priorities

 

 

Jumps

Demonstrate continued development of fundamental aspects of jumping such:

  • Proper air position
  • Complete rotation
  • Proper landing position

Spins

Basic spin position for two revolutions

Positions may be developmental

Spiral/Turn Sequences

Basic execution of spiral positions (spirals)

Correct execution of edges, steps and turns

Skating Skills

Attempt at proper crosscut technique

Development of speed and balance while executing elements

Performance

Carriage: organized/controlled form and posture

Projection: attempt to project performance to audience

 

STAR 2 Judging Panel Process

In STAR 2, the judges will work as a team as in STAR 1. As a group, they will identify and determine the assessment for each element and program component.

  1. The STAR 2 judging panel is typically seated on a judges’ stand near the middle of the arena
  2. STAR 2 judging panels may wear headsets to communicate
  3. Each judge on a STAR 2 panel has a different role:

 

Role Requirements

Responsibilities

 

 

Judge 1

Comfortable in a speaking role

Identifies the element executed and calls the assessment level

Calls the ratings for the program components at the end of the program

Does not write anything down

 

 

 

 

Judge 2

Comfortable in tracking and leading the review process

Familiar with element codes

Records Judge 1’s calls on the official marking sheet

May call “review” if he/she disagrees with a call or a rating

Leads the review process at the end of the program

Leads verification of well-balanced program criteria

Reads back elements, ratings and program component ratings to confirm

 

 

Judge 3

Participates in the review and discussion of assessments

Good role for a judge or technical official who is new to STAR

Also records Judge 1’s calls on a marking sheet

May call “review” if he/she disagrees with a call or a rating

Participates in review of well-balanced program criteria

Confirms read-back matches his/her notes

Referee

One of the judges is designated as Referee

Performs regular Referee duties (i.e. oversees event)

  1. If for any reason the panel of judges cannot reach a majority agreement on an element or a program component rating, the original call of Judge 1 shall

STAR 2 Well-Balanced Program

Similar to programs skated using the full Cumulative Points Calculation (CPC) system, STAR 2 programs have element requirements that need to be filled. When skaters execute incorrect elements or elements exceeding what are permitted by the well-balanced program guidelines, these elements are marked as Invalid.  An invalid element will not count towards the total element assessments.

On each marking sheet, judges will find a small box with the list of required elements for STAR 2. This will help the panel quickly identify if the skater has indeed included the required elements, or if any incorrect or additional elements have been included in error.

There are several types of errors that will result in an invalid element being called. Some examples are detailed in the following chart:

Element

Error

Result

Jump

Skater includes a jump not permitted in STAR 2 (e.g. Axel)

Invalid Jump

Jump Combination

Skater performs a jump combination other than the prescribed combination jump (e.g. 1S+1T in STAR 2)

Invalid Jump

Jump Sequence

Skater performs a jump sequence

Invalid Jump

Jump Combination

Skater performs a 3-jump combination

Invalid Jump

Spin

Skater performs a spin not prescribed for level (e.g. forward upright spin)

Invalid Spin

Spin

Skater changes feet to back spin position (starts in forward upright, changes feet to back upright to enter back spin)

Invalid Spin

STAR 2 Determining the Result

A skater must achieve at least seven assessments at a specific level in order to achieve that level as an Overall Assessment.  There are also requirements for skaters to achieve in skating skills and performance to encourage well-rounded skaters and to focus on the basics of good quality skating.

Overall Rating

# of Rating Assessments at Level

Skating Skills

Gold

Seven or more

Silver or higher

Silver

At least seven (or higher)

Bronze or higher

Bronze

At least seven (or higher)

Bronze or higher

Merit

Five or more

Merit

If a skater’s skating skills are assessed at Merit, then they will receive an overall assessment of Merit regardless of how the other elements are assessed.

Example: Seven of the eleven assessments are Bronze or higher; therefore, the performance is assessed as Bronze.

STAR 3 and 4 Events

  • STAR 3 and STAR 4 consist of a free program skated individually
  • Introduces skaters to performing more challenging elements in a program
  • Music becomes more important as interpretation is now assessed
  • There is a focus on fundamentals and on encouraging the Axel jump
  • STAR 3 and STAR 4 have the same program element content except for Axel requirement

Key Differences Between STAR 3 and STAR 4

  • In a STAR 3 event, each element is rated against a standard and skaters are given an overall rating of Gold, Silver, Bronze or Merit
  • In a STAR 4 event, each element is rated against a standard and skaters are given a ranking in their event of first, second, third,
  • In a STAR 4 event a single Axel must be attempted

STAR 3 and STAR 4 Technical Content

For a list of the most current technical requirements for STAR 3 and STAR 4, please refer to the STAR Competition Program Requirements.

STAR 3 and STAR 4 skaters will complete the following elements in their programs:

  • Jump Elements
  • Spin Elements
  • Spiral Sequence

STAR 3 and STAR 4 Standards of Assessment

For the most current STAR 3 and STAR 4 Assessment Criteria, please refer to the STAR Competition Program Requirements.

In STAR 3 and STAR 4, judges shall use the Assessment Criteria chart to determine the assessments for jump, spin and spiral elements as well as program components. The chart contains detailed descriptions of different quality aspects that judges will observe in the elements and program components.

Similar to STAR 2, each element and program component has two to three different assessment criteria that the judges need to consider when determining their assessments. Judges need to match the quality that they observe with these criteria in order to determine their assessments for the elements and program components.

In STAR 3/4 each element and program component also has required criteria. Ratings for each element and program component cannot exceed the rating for the required criteria.

Remember: For the jump, spin and spiral elements, if a skater falls, the element does not necessarily receive an automatic Merit assessment. If there are positive qualities to the other two assessment criteria, then the element could still receive a Bronze rating.

STAR 3 and 4 Priorities

Element

Priorities

 

Jumps

Proper technique on single jumps

Beginning of proper technique on Axel

Beginning to perform jumps with speed

Spins

Ability to complete two revolutions on correct edge in a correct basic position

Spiral Sequence

Ability to hold a correct spiral position on the correct edge

Skating Skills

Balance, speed and stroking, crosscut technique

 

Performance

Carriage: organized/controlled form and posture (e.g., landing positions)

Projection: attempt to project performance to audience

Interpretation

Basic ability to listen to and understand their music

STAR 3 and STAR 4 Judging Panel Process

In STAR 3 and STAR 4 – the judges will work as a team as in STAR 2. As a group, they will identify and determine the assessment for each element and program component.

  1. The STAR 3 and STAR 4 judging panel is typically seated on a judges’ stand near the middle of the
  2. STAR 3 and STAR 4 judging panels may wear headsets to
  3. Each judge on a STAR 3 and STAR 4 judging panel has a different role:

 

Role Requirements

Responsibilities

 

 

Judge 1

Comfortable in a speaking role

Identifies the element executed and calls the assessment level

Calls the ratings for the program components at the end of the program

Does not write anything down

 

 

 

 

Judge 2

Comfortable in tracking and leading the review process

Familiar with element codes

Records Judge 1’s calls on the official marking sheet

May call “review” if he/she disagrees with a call or rating

Leads the review process at the end of the program

Leads verification of well-balanced program criteria

Reads back elements, ratings and program component ratings to confirm

 

 

Judge 3

Participates in the review and discussion of assessments

Good role for a judge or technical official who is new to STAR

Also records Judge 1’s calls on a marking sheet

May call “review” if he/she disagrees with a call or a rating

Participates in review of well-balanced program criteria

Confirms read back matches his/her notes

Referee

One of the judges is designated as Referee

Performs regular Referee duties (i.e. oversees event)

  1. If for any reason the panel of judges cannot reach a majority agreement on an element or a program component rating, the original call of Judge 1 shall

STAR 3 and STAR 4 Well-Balanced Program

Similar to programs skated using the full CPC system, STAR 3 and STAR 4 programs have element requirements that need to be filled. When skaters execute incorrect elements or elements exceeding what are permitted by the well-balanced program guidelines, these elements are marked as Invalid. An invalid element will not count towards the total element assessments.

On each marking sheet, judges will find a small box with the list of required elements for STAR 3 and STAR 4. This will help the panel quickly identify if the skater has indeed included the required elements, or if any incorrect or additional elements have been included in error.

There are several types of errors that will result in an invalid element being identified. Some examples are detailed in the following chart:

Element

Error

Result

Jump

Skater includes a jump not permitted in STAR 3 and STAR 4 (e.g. double jump)

Invalid Element

Jump Combination

Skater performs an additional jump combination beyond what is permitted

Invalid Element

Jump Sequence

Skater performs a jump sequence

Invalid Element

Jump Combination

Skater performs a 3-jump combination

Invalid Element

Spin

Skater performs a spin not prescribed for level (e.g., Forward Upright spin)

Invalid Element

Spin

Skater changes feet to back spin position (starts in forward upright, changes feet to back upright to enter back spin)

Invalid Element

STAR 3 and STAR 4 Bonuses and Violations

In STAR 3, there are no specific bonuses or violations that will be applied.

In STAR 3 and STAR 4, if a skater falls on an element, there is no specific deduction that will be taken. If a fall happens outside of an element, this will be considered in the Skating Skills mark.

In STAR 4, however, for the first time, skaters may earn bonuses or be subject to violations.

STAR 4 Bonus: 3-point bonus for each Axel that is successfully completed.

Identified Axel Element

Bonus Result

1A

Bonus awarded

1A <

Bonus awarded

1A<<

No bonus

1A + Fall

Bonus awarded

1A < + Fall

Bonus awarded

1A<< + Fall

No bonus

Note: There can be a maximum of two Axels and they must be clean or under-rotated in order to receive a bonus. A downgraded Axel will not receive a bonus. However, a fully rotated Axel with a fall or an under-rotated Axel with a fall would both still receive a bonus.

STAR 4 Violations

Two violations may be applied in STAR 4: Timing Violation and Costume Violation

Timing Violation: A violation and a corresponding deduction of 0.2 will be applied for up to every five seconds that a skater’s program is lacking or is in excess of the specified time. Skaters are allowed to be ten seconds shorter or longer than the specified time, but any program length shorter or longer than these ten seconds will be considered a violation.

Examples of timing violation in STAR 4:

Specified Program Time

Accepted Times

Actual Time

Violations

Deduction Applied

2:00

1:50 to 2:10

1:47

1

0.2

2:00

1:50 to 2:10

1:41

2

0.4

2:00

1:50 to 2:10

2:13

1

0.2

2:00

1:50 to 2:10

2:17

2

0.4

Note: Programs must be timed using a stopwatch. The Referee shall begin timing when the skater begins to move and ends when the skater finishes the performance.

Costume Violation: A violation and a corresponding deduction of 0.2 will be applied each time any part of a skater’s costume falls on the ice.

STAR 3 Determining the Result

A skater must achieve at least seven assessments at a specific level in order to achieve that level as an Overall Assessment. There are also requirements for skaters to achieve in Skating Skills and Performance to encourage well-rounded skaters and to focus on the basics of good quality skating.

Overall Rating

# of Ratings Assessed at Level

Skating Skills

Gold

Seven or more

Silver or higher

Silver

At least seven (or higher)

Bronze or higher

Bronze

At least seven (or higher)

Bronze or higher

Merit

Five or more

Merit


If a skater’s Skating Skills are assessed at Merit, then he/she will receive an overall assessment of Merit regardless of how the other components at a higher level are assessed.

Example: Eight of the 11 assessments are for Gold; therefore, the performance is assessed as Gold.

STAR 4 – Determining the Result

To produce the ranking for STAR 4:

  • Each element is assigned a value (note: it is not a requirement of a STAR judge to memorize the element values as they will be calculated by the data specialists)
  • The judging panel’s assessments for each element (i.e. Gold, Silver, Bronze and Merit) are also assigned a point value
  • Element values and assessment values are added together to give each element a total point value
  • Each program component is also assigned a point value based on its rating of Gold, Silver, Bronze or Merit
  • The total points for all elements are added to give each skater a total score
  • The skater with the highest total score places first, the skater with the second-highest total score places second,

Element Values

Assessment Values

Single Salchow

= 0.4 points

Merit

= 0 points

Single Loop

= 0.5 points

Bronze

= 1 point

Single Flip

= 0.5 points

Silver

= 2 points

Single Axel

= 1.1 points

Gold

= 3 points

Sit Spin

= 1.1 points

 

 


Therefore, a single flip jump assessed as Silver would have the following point value:

Element Value

Assessment Value

Total Value

0.5

2.0

2.5

 This calculation process is repeated for all jump, spin and spiral elements as well as program components.

 Remember:

  • These scores are not released to the skaters and are not posted; they are only used for calculating group
  • Each STAR 4 skater will receive a report card with a rating of each element and an overall group

 While the results sheet for STAR 4 looks very similar to STAR 3, there is one key difference.

 Instead of receiving an overall assessment, the skater’s result sheet will show an overall group ranking as well as the individual element assessments. This will provide valuable feedback to the skater, coach and parents.


Section 4: STAR 1-4 Judge Duties & Competencies

Duties of an Official 

Skate Canada officials must follow certain guidelines with respect to their conduct both on and off the judge’s stand. Below is a summary of the duties of Skate Canada judges. The complete Duties of Officials Policy can be found in the Association Policies and Procedures section of the Skate Canada Rule Book.

General: Evaluators, judges, referees, technical controllers, technical specialists and data specialists are official representatives of the Association and should at all times conduct themselves in a manner befitting such an appointment. They shall also be held responsible for seeing that all rules of the Association are observed on any occasion where they are present.

Restrictions: Skate Canada officials must be aware of the restrictions that are in place that prevent them from acting as officials in certain situations. These include:

  • Situations of conflict of interest or perceived conflict of interest
  • Situations where the official is closely related to the competitor, coach, dance partner or another member of the judging

Duties: Skate Canada judges must:

  • Have satisfactory eyesight and hearing
  • Conduct themselves with discretion
  • Be impartial and neutral and must not show bias for or against any skater
  • Mark independently
  • Not discuss an event while it is taking place
  • Use a full range of marks that accurately reflects the performances of all skaters
  • Not use previously prepared marks

Code of Ethics

A Code of Ethics is a set of principles designed to help members of an organization understand the difference between ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ in the context of making decisions within the organization.

 

Skate Canada has introduced a unified code of ethics. The purpose of Skate Canada’s Code of Ethics is to outline the organization’s expectations and guiding principles for appropriate decision making and behaviour. The code applies to all skaters, officials, coaches, employees, board members, volunteers, alumni, and hall of fame members of Skate Canada and its affiliate organizations. This code of ethics also applies to parents and guardians who participate in and observe related activities.

STAR 1-4 Competency Profile

Skate Canada has created a judge competency profile to describe the main expectations of a successful STAR judge:

  1. Assessment Skills
    1. General Skating Knowledge
    2. Technical Knowledge
    3. Decision-Making
  2. Interpersonal Skills
    1. Relationship Building
    2. Communication
  3. Deportment
    1. Self-Management
    2. Professionalism
    3. Collaboration

Assessment Skills

There are three main areas of competency within Assessment Skills:

  • General Skating Knowledge
  • Technical Knowledge
  • Decision Making

General Skating Knowledge

While there is no formal skating background required for STAR 1-4 judges, having this background is definitely an asset to this role. All judges, even those with a skating background, must demonstrate general skating knowledge through the successful completion of an Element Identification Exercise to ensure that they are able to accurately and consistently identify skating elements.

Minimum knowledge required:

  • Possess sport-specific knowledge
  • Be able to identify elements accurately
  • Be able to understand and identify the general mechanics of elements and basic skating execution

Technical Knowledge

STAR 1-4 judges are expected to remain up-to-date with their technical knowledge even after the completion of the STAR clinic.  This includes:

  • Monitoring the Skate Canada website and Skate Canada National Service Centre and Section emails for any updated publications regarding new or revised STAR information
  • Judging at STAR events several times during each skating

STAR judges must also ensure that the standards that they are applying are consistent with the training that they have received and with the standards that are being applied within the STAR panel setting. This can be done by:

  • Reviewing the STAR Criteria for Assessment
  • Asking for clarification when judging with others at STAR events
  • Reaching out to others within the Section for further dialogue and understanding of the STAR Assessment Standards
  • Gaining further experience by judging at STAR events

Decision-Making

STAR judges must be consistent with their decision-making and ensure that their judgments are being made without bias, in good faith and are based on the standards and criteria that they have been taught in the STAR clinic.

What is Bias?

Bias is a prejudice in favour of or against one thing, person or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

STAR 1-4 judges must understand the different types of situations where personal biases may exist and what steps can be taken to minimize or avoid them. Following are some examples of situations where personal biases may exist:

  • Judging an event or category where one’s former skating friends are competing
  • Judging an event or category where skaters being coached by one’s current or former coach are competing
  • Judging an event or category where one’s rival skating club is competing
  • Judging a category with a well-known skater
  • Judging a category where there is great crowd support for one skater
  • Judging a category where one skater appears much stronger than the others in warm-up

Judges who find themselves in situations where they feel their possibility for bias will be hard to overcome, or who may be concerned about the perception of bias by others, should speak up and ask for a different judging assignment if possible.

Objectivity and Integrity

STAR 1-4 judges must always act with objectivity and integrity. This means eliminating personal bias and always acting with the utmost fairness to all competitors. This is demonstrated by:

  • Never awarding or supporting higher or lower assessments than warranted due to personal knowledge and/or relationships
  • Always applying the standards consistently and ensuring that assessments are consistent and reflective of the appropriate assessment criteria
  • Never awarding or supporting assessments based on past performance, reputation, crowd reaction, or performance in the warm-up.

Interpersonal Skills

There are two main areas of competency within interpersonal skills

  • Relationship Building
  • Communication

Relationship Building

New STAR 1-4 judges will be meeting many people for the first time. This could be the first step in long careers as officials and they may develop long-lasting relationships with many individuals. However, even if officials do not stay in the sport for life, there are many reasons that building relationships is important for all STAR judges.

  • As a community of volunteers, it is important that all volunteers are respected, as they are acting out of their community spirit and their desire to contribute to figure skating
  • Officials and volunteers interact over a period of one, two or even three or more days at a competition or event. Positive relationships will be useful and beneficial during this time
  • As a community of volunteers, everyone must help each other where possible
  • It is worth remembering that the end goal of officiating is ultimately about ensuring a positive experience for each skater and that this is easier to achieve by building a community of volunteers who are connected with solid relationships

How Does One Build Relationships?

  • Have conversations with individuals that extend beyond one’s involvement in figure skating
  • Engage in active listening, not simply one-way communication about one’s self or one’s own interests
  • Be sensitive and aware of the emotions of others
  • Interact with individuals of all ages, backgrounds and positions within the organization

Communication

STAR judges must demonstrate good communication skills in their roles as officials, both with fellow officials and with all other skating stakeholders (skaters, coaches, event organizers, etc.).

Positive Communication

Positive communication means considering the following:

  • Describing what was seen versus what was not seen
  • Focusing on being supportive and motivated to help
  • Framing messages in a positive way:
    • Don’t land on two feet versus try to land on one foot
    • You can’t expect me to judge all day Sunday versus I am able to judge between 8 a.m. and 12 p.m. on Sunday
    • You only have crosscuts in your program versus you seem to use crosscuts to generate most of your speed in your program
    • I can’t find the information on the website…it’s too hard to navigate versus would you be able to tell me where I can find that on the website?
    • I didn’t see that under-rotation on the jump – versus – in my opinion that jump was fully rotated.

Expressing Opinions

At times during STAR 1-4 events, panel members may have different opinions about an element or an assessment. STAR 1-4 judges must be able to express their opinions effectively and respectfully by:

  • Never telling or implying to another person that their opinion is not valid or is incorrect
  • Understanding that there are three people on STAR panels to ensure that the most correct answer is achieved. The third judge who does not agree with the majority is not necessarily wrong, just in the minority
  • Discussing differences of opinion in a mature and respectful way taking into account different vantage points, perspectives and interpretations of STAR standards
  • Not questioning or communicating doubt about the decision to other individuals not on the panel.

Continuous Learning

All STAR judges should remain open to the opinions of others and should be willing to learn from fellow judges to expand their knowledge of figure skating.

  • Ask questions to gain further insight into decisions
  • Be open to feedback about one’s own standards
  • Resist being defensive if one’s opinions or standards are questioned or challenged

Deportment

There are three main areas of competency within deportment:

  • Self-Management
  • Professionalism
  • Collaboration

Self-Management

STAR 1-4 judges are expected to possess basic skills of self-management and to take responsibility throughout their work as officials. Acting in an independent way reduces their reliance on others and in a community of volunteers, this is essential.   STAR judges are asked to:

  • Take responsibility for their own needs where possible at events (e.g., ensure that they know when meals are being served and eat when they have time).
  • Manage personal business at appropriate times. Texting and making phone calls when officiating are to be avoided and are prohibited while on the judging stand

Professionalism

STAR judges must be aware that they are acting as ambassadors and representatives of Skate Canada. As such, they have certain responsibilities to the organization. They must:

  • Demonstrate appropriate and professional attire, behaviour and conduct befitting a Skate Canada official throughout an entire event, both on-panel and off-panel.
  • Arrive at events with all appropriate paperwork and materials to ensure that they are fully prepared to judge
  • Respect commitments they have given to organizing committees of events. Refrain from canceling or changing their availability once they have agreed to act as an official except in extenuating circumstances
  • Be realistic when committing their time and honour this commitment. If they do not think they can commit, they must be honest and say so upon being asked. When events lose officials it causes extra work for everyone. The technical representative must revise the schedule and other officials often end up working longer hours or with fewer or shorter breaks
  • Ensure timely communication with fellow officials and organizing committees. Prompt and accurate replies to phone calls and e-mails assist in smooth planning of events.

Conflicts, Biases and Relationships

STAR judges need to be aware that as representatives of Skate Canada, their relationships with others in the sport will be observed. STAR judges should always act in a professional manner, keeping in mind the perception of their actions and behaviours by not showing an over-familiarity or a preference for any one individual or group of individuals.  They must:

  • Recognize that conversations and relationships that judges have with skaters, coaches, clubs and other stakeholders (in person, via e-mail and on social media) will be observed by others and should not cause them to question their objectivity towards or against any skaters, coaches, clubs, sections or countires
  • Declare all conflicts of interest or perceived conflicts of interest prior to accepting assignments (as outlined in Skate Canada Regulations).
  • Respect and follow the Skate Canada guidelines surrounding appropriate use of social media for officials 

Collaboration

STAR judges are part of a team when acting on STAR panels. As such, they should strive to embrace the concept of teamwork and working together with a group of individuals to the betterment of the sport. STAR judges should remember to maintain a positive spirit of enthusiasm and cooperativeness throughout a competition.

Flexibility

Figure skating competitions and events are often unpredictable endeavours. Many things can happen prior to and during an event that can impact a STAR judge.  These can include:

  • Another judge becoming ill, encountering traffic, weather delays or family situations that result in judging assignments changing or increasing
  • Schedules running ahead or behind which may impact an official’s starting or ending time
  • Arena problems such as power outages, equipment failures and/or staff problems that can impact an event

STAR judges are encouraged to react in a flexible and good-humoured way when these kinds of situations occur and the event changes unexpectedly.


Section 5: Introduction to Refereeing

Roles and Responsibilities of the Referee

  • Every skating event has a designated “referee” that is assigned by the technical representative
  • The duties of the referee can be fulfilled by Judge 1, 2 or 3 on a STAR 1-4 panel
  • The referee oversees the conduct of a specific segment taking place at the event

A referee must be able to focus on two jobs at the same time: referee duties and judging duties. A referee’s main duties include:

  • Familiarity with all rules: Referees should be familiar with all regulations governing the event, including warm-up times, program lengths and the correct procedures surrounding interruptions and withdrawls
  • Ensuring that all skaters are present: Before the warm-up begins, the referee must ask the announcer or ice captain if all of the skaters for that group are present and are ready to take the ice. If a skater is not present and the ice captain has checked that they did not register, it can be assumed that the skater has chosen not to skate. In this case, the referee must inform the other judges on the panel about which skater is missing so that that name can be crossed out on the marking sheets
  • Ensuring that all skaters are on the warm-up: If the ice captain informs the referee that all skaters are present but there seems to be a skater missing from warm-up, the referee should call the skaters over to the judges’ stand to determine who is missing
  • Ensuring that the warm-up is timed properly: Referees should have a stopwatch to ensure that the music technicians are providing the correct amount of time for the event warm-up.
  • Monitor warm-up: Referees should observe the warm-up for any incidents that might occur (e.g. injury) and act accordingly. In the case of a serious injury (e.g. potential concussion) referee may need to clear the ice and arrange for medical attention (e.g. coach or other medical if available at event).
  • Deciding to start the event: Once the warm-up is completed, the referee signals to the music technician/announcer that the first skater can be called
  • Setting the pace of the event: In many cases at STAR events, there will be minimal time allowed between skaters. This means that the referee must keep the event moving by ensuring that an efficient dialogue is happening between judges. The referee must be aware of when the event started and of how much time is allowed for this event. If the referee feels that the panel is spending too much time discussing assessments, he/she must politely inform them of this and if necessary, assist in moving things along. If the referee feels that the announcer is moving too quickly or too slowly, he/she can politely arrange a signal with the announcer that can be used by the referee to denote when it is time to proceed with the next skater.
  • Acting/intervening in the case of stops or interruptions:
    • If the competitor informs the referee within thirty seconds of the start of the music that the tempo or quality of the music is deficient, the skater may restart the program from the beginning. There is no deduction in STAR 2, 3 or 4 in this situation.
    • When an interruption, a stop in the music or any other adverse condition unrelated to the competitor’s equipment occurs, such as lighting problems, poor ice conditions, etc., the referee shall blow a whistle to signal the competitor(s) to stop The competitor(s) shall continue from the point of interruption immediately after the problem has been solved. If, however, the interruption lasts longer than 10 minutes, the referee should grant a second warm-up period for the skaters within the affected warm-up group that have not yet skated (as outlined in Skate Canada Regulations). There is no deduction in STAR 2, 3 or 4 in this situation.
    • If a competitor becomes injured during a performance, experiences a flare-up of a health problem or encounters an adverse condition related to equipment, such as unexpected damage to clothing that impedes skating, the Referee must decide at which point this situation poses a safety risk to the skater and must then blow a whistle to signal to the skater to stop There is no deduction in STAR 2, 3 or 4 in this situation.
    • If the adverse condition can be remedied without delay, the competitor(s) shall immediately continue from the point of interruption. There is no deduction in STAR 2, 3 or 4 in this situation. 
    • If a remedy is not possible without delay, the referee will allow a period of up to three minutes for the competitor to resume skating from the point of This time period commences immediately after the competitor stops skating or is ordered to do so by the referee, whichever is earlier. If the skater cannot continue the performance, he/she is considered to be withdrawn.

Referees should remember that above all, the priority in STAR is for skaters to participate and have a positive experience.  These suggested procedures are based on Skate Canada Rules and Regulations but do not describe every possible scenario that a referee may encounter in a STAR eventReferees are reminded to always exercise their discretion and good judgment and to consider the best interests of the skaters in all situations.


Section 6: STAR Events

Once the STAR clinic has been completed successfully and an official is qualified to judge at STAR events, he/she must be familiar with the procedures of these events.

Pre-Event

  • Understand the process of being placed on the list of judges within a section
    • Contact your Section Office, Section Judge/Evaluator Chair, Regional Judging Representatives as applicable
  • Understand the process of being invited to judge at a STAR event
    • Technical representatives (tech reps) are responsible for creating the event and the judging schedules. They are usually also responsible for recruiting judges.
    • Tech reps will often contact officials three to six weeks prior to an event
    • A prompt reply with ACCURATE availability is crucial
    • Officials should not indicate that they are available if there is a chance that their schedules could change
    • If officials state that they are available, this time should be blocked off in their calendars immediately in case they are needed
    • Officials should make every attempt to make themselves available for large blocks of time as it is difficult to schedule judges with only two to three hours of availability
    • If availability changes, officials should provide updated availability right away
    • Officials who state that they are available should ensure that they have transportation to and from the event. Any issues with transportation should be noted when stating availability as it may not be possible to be provided with transportation at the event
    • Officials should be sure to provide a list of food allergies or sensitivities when responding to a request for their services
    • Once an official has agreed to judge at a STAR competition, he/she must not cancel or change availability except in extenuating circumstances

 Event

  • Officials must be responsible for looking after their own logistics related to arriving at an event
    • The tech rep will email the officials a judging schedule one to two weeks prior to an event
    • Officials must ensure that they have the correct arena address and that they are aware of the driving time and directions to an event
    • Officials must allow enough time to arrive at an event at least 30-45 minutes before they are scheduled to begin judging
    • Officials should provide a cell phone number to the tech rep in case they encounter weather or traffic delays
    • Officials should read the email from the tech rep for information about where the judges’ room, parking, arena doors, etc. are located
  • Understand event protocols:
    • Most events will require officials to register at a registration They will then be provided with an accreditation tag that will give them access to the judges’ room and the judging stand.
    • Officials should connect with the tech rep to make them aware of their arrival
  • Prepare for judging
    • Officials should introduce themselves to fellow judges and/or the referee
    • Judging assignments should be reviewed for any changes
    • Time should be taken to locate areas of importance, such as where meals will be eaten, washrooms, location of judges’ stand, etc.
    • Officials should locate judging supplies that will be needed, such as Starting Orders, Marking Sheets, pencils and clipboards
    • Judge 1/the referee should ensure that he/she has a stopwatch available (cell phones should not be used for timing).
    • Officials should speak to the referee if they have any questions about the event

 Post-event

  • As officials prepare to leave the arena, they must remember that coaches occasionally wish to talk to the members of the judging panel to help them further the development of particular skaters. Judges can play a key role in encouraging and educating all members of the skating community.

Remember the following:

  • Discussions of this nature should take place between a Skate Canada coach and a Skate Canada official. While the coach may wish that a parent and/or a skater could be present for the discussion, officials should only discuss event results with a coach. This avoids misunderstandings or difficult discussions particularly if a parent does not have a skating background, and therefore the technical knowledge, needed to have a productive feedback discussions.
  • Questions about the identification or assessment of an element should be directed to Judge 2 or Judge 3, who would have the notes on the identifications/assessments.
  • Officials should always provide constructive feedback and should never share or make comments that are hurtful or overly harsh. It is important to remember that these skaters are at the beginning of their development and expectations and any feedback provided by STAR judges must match the developmental expectations of each STAR level. 

Section 7: Next Steps

To be appointed as a STAR 1-4 Judge, candidates must receive a positive STAR 1-4 seminar assessment form (Appendix A) which will consider:

  1. Element Identification Exercise
  2. Assessment Criteria Exercise
  3. Overall interpersonal skills and deportment

Once the positive assessment form is received, here are a few things to know about moving forward.

  1. You must have a signed Code of Ethics form on file with Skate Canada to receive your STAR 1-4 judging
  2. You must be a registrant or member of Skate Canada to receive your STAR 1-4 judging promotion (registration is completed through a Skate Canada club or skating school).
  3. Your Section Judge/Evaluator Chair will send you a letter or an email to confirm that you have received your

Once you have received your promotion you will be placed on the list of STAR 1-4 judges in your section or area. You may begin to receive e-mails or phone calls from tech reps asking you to judge at a competition. Remember all of your training regarding prompt and accurate replies and commitments!

Each role on the STAR panel has specific duties and you may feel more comfortable in one role over another. Although you have been given the necessary tools and training to be successful in all three panel positions, you may communicate your preference to the tech rep (with no guarantee they will be able to accommodate all requests).

Note: It is recommended that STAR judges gain experience officiating as Judge 2 or Judge 3 for a minimum of two STAR groups/flights (STAR 2, 3 or 4) before being assigned to the role of Judge 1 on a STAR panel.

Future Judging Promotions and Other Opportunities

Some judges may enjoy judging as a STAR 1-4 judge for quite a while. Others may be curious and interested in progressing as a judge to officiate at STAR 5, STARSkate or Competitive events such as Pre-Juvenile and Juvenile.

To progress to being a STAR 5 and higher judge, you must attend further training. You should speak to your Section Judge/Evaluator Chair if you are interested in progressing. They are usually offered one to two times per year in each section.

To progress as a technical official, there is a separate training seminar for technical officials that sections may offer as well. When and how often this training is offered is normally based on the need for technical officials as well as the number of people interested, so once again you should speak to your Section Judge/Evaluator Chair or Section Technical Officials Chair for more information.

Finally, one way to be involved at higher-level competitions before you have any additional promotions is to volunteer as a data input operator or video replay operator. Speak to your Section Judge/Evaluator chair about the opportunity to be trained in these areas.


Appendix A (Participant Assessment Form)

STAR 1-4 Judge Seminar Participant Assessment Form


Participant Name:                                                             Participant Skate Canada #:                                                      

Learning Facilitator Name:                                                 Learning Facilitator Skate Canada #:                                        

STAR Judge Seminar Location:                                           STAR Judge Seminar Dates:                                       

1. General Skating Knowledge

Element Identification Exercise Score (minimum 8/10 required)

Y/N (Score:        )

Comments:

2. Technical Knowledge and Decision Making

Assessment Criteria Exercise Score (minimum 16/20 required)

Y/N (Score:        )

Comments:

3. Interpersonal Skills*

Communication

Relationship Building

Meets expectations?

Y/N

Comments:

4. Deportment*

Self-Management

Professionalism

Collaboration

Meets expectations?

Y/N

Comments:

This participant is recommended for appointment as a STAR 1-4 Judge: Yes    No    Other

A recommendation for appointment requires a “Yes” on items 1 and 2, and a “Meets expectations” on items 3 and 4.

Comments:

 


The assessment of interpersonal skills and deportment is based on the participant’s involvement during the seminar. The learning facilitator will observe the interactions with and between the participants on- site to determine if the candidate:

 

 

 

Relationship Building

Exhibits positive and respectful relationships with all stakeholders

Understands group dynamics and practice sensitivity to the needs, feelings, and concerns of others

Interacts effectively with a wide range of personalities and experience levels in an inclusive, welcoming and approachable manner

 

 

 

Communication

Engages in positive and constructive communication with all stakeholders

Demonstrates active listening skills

Expresses opinions based on sound technical knowledge in an open and non-confrontational manner

Provides open, constructive and clear feedback

 

 

Self-Management

Demonstrates self-responsibility; arrives prepared mentally and emotionally

Shows realistic expectations of progression through official’s pathway (promotion criteria, manage personal progress)

Manages personal and non-personal stressors effectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Professionalism and Collaboration

Exhibits behaviours and conduct conducive to a Skate Canada official

Arrives physically prepared, paperwork and materials reviewed, ready to learn

Remains open and adaptable to changes in schedule, groups, etc.

Demonstrates awareness of social media presence; does not post details/ photos related to athletes, officials, volunteers or event management

Demonstrates a high standard of ethical behaviour

Demonstrates an ability to “read the scene” and conduct oneself appropriately

Engages in positive conflict resolution when needed

Welcomes and promotes continuous learning, sharing of knowledge, and giving/receiving honest, constructive feedback

Maintains a spirit of enthusiasm, collaboration, and cooperation with all stakeholders


Appendix B (Referee Checklist)

This checklist has been developed to assist Referees when Refereeing STAR 1-4 events. Referees should remember that above all the priority in STAR is for skaters to participate and have a positive experience. The suggested procedures below are based on Skate Canada Rules and Regulations but do not describe every possible scenario a Referee may encounter in a STAR event. Referees are reminded to always exercise their discretion and good judgment and to consider the best interest of the skater in all situations.

Event Portion

Situation

Action

Contacts

Pre-Warm-up

Confirm skaters are present

Request confirmation all skaters are present

Announcer / Ice Captain

Pre-Warm-up

You are informed a skater is missing

Ask Ice Captain to confirm is skater has registered.

  1. If no – consider them withdrawn
  2. If yes – task Ice Captain with locating skater

Ice Captain

Pre-Warm-up

A registered skater cannot be located

If the skater cannot be located and the event is running on-time or late, you can go ahead with the warm-up. If the event is running early, you should wait until the scheduled start time to begin the warm-up.

If the skater is located during the warm-up they may join the warm-up in progress but are not awarded additional time.

If the skater is located after the warm-up has been completed, you may elect to move them to a later group of the same event (i.e. they would skate in STAR 3 Group #2 instead of STAR 3 Group #1.

  1. Inform the current judging panel to remove their marking sheet from the flight in-progress
  2. Provide their marking sheet to the referee of the next fight
  3. Inform the announcer not to announce the skater
  4. Inform the ice captain to relay this information to the skater and coach
  5. Inform the data specialists of this change.

If there is no later scheduled group of the same event, the skater must choose to compete without a warm-up or withdraw from the event.

Ice Captain/ Announcer/ Judging Panel/ Data Specialists

Warm-up The incorrect number of skaters is on the warm-up
  1. Ask the Announcer to call the skaters over to the judge’s stand
  2. Do a roll call with the skaters and identify the extra or missing.
  3. If a skater is missing, speak to the Ice Captain to request they locate the skater.
  4. Ask any extra skaters to leave the ice and to speak to the Ice Captain and their coach to find their correct warm-up
  5. If a skater is missing, allow the warm-up to continue and follow the same steps as above to locate the skater and determine a course of action.
Announcer / Ice Captain
Warm-up Time the warm-up according to the STAR Event Management Guide.
  1. Ensure you have a stop watch to properly time the warm-up. (Many times extra minutes are added here that can contribute to a competition running behind schedule)
  2. You should begin timing once all skaters have taken the ice. You should also ensure the announcers announce ‘one minute remaining in warm-up’.
Announcer

Warm-up

Skater is injured

  1. Skater may leave ice to be assessed.
  2. If skater requires on-ice medical attention clear ice surface and allow appropriate medical attention to enter ice surface. If interruption is longer than 10 min a new warm-up should be given to remaining skaters
  3. If skater is unable to continue they will be considered to be withdrawn
  4. Skater may be moved to end of the group to allow for assessment
  5. If following assessment skater is able to compete they will not be given an extra warm-up
 Ice Captain/Coach

Performance

Determine the start of the event

  1. Speak to the Announcer prior to the start of the event so they know to wait for your signal in between each skater
  2. If you are satisfied that all skaters have cleared the ice and that the first skater is ready to skate, then you should give a visual signal to the Announcer to proceed
  3. It is important to keep the event moving as efficiently as possible without rushing the panel or allowing too much discussion. You should consult the schedule to know how much time has been allocated to the event, and even ask the Tech Rep how much time they have allowed in between each This will give you a sense of the required pace of the event.
 Announcer / Tech Rep / Judging Panel

Performance

A skater’s music won’t play or it is the wrong music

  1. Call the skater over to tell them there is a problem with the music
  2. Check if the music technicians have another copy of the music. If they do – have them test it quickly and if it works then have the Announcer announce the skater again
  3. If the second copy of the music does not work, or an incorrect version was handed in, ask the skater if they have an extra copy of the correct music
  4. Allow a couple of minutes to resolve this problem. In some cases, an iPod may be located with the music, so you must check with the music technicians if this can be played from their equipment
  5. If the time taking to resolve this problem exceeds 1-2 minutes, you should suggest that the skater be moved to skate at the end of the flight. This way the event can proceed without delay
  6. In this situation, have the Ice Captain inform the next scheduled skater that they are going to be skating Allow a moment or two for this skater to be located and/or to get organized and then have them announced.
  7. If another copy of the music cannot be located the skater can choose to skate to another skater’s music. In this case you would select another skater’s music from the flight and play this for the You may wish to check with the coach what the length of the program was planned to be in order to select an appropriate program length. As a reminder, there are no timing deductions in STAR 2 or STAR 3 if a skater’s program is too long or too short.
  8. If a skater does not wish to do this, their only other option is to withdraw. A skater has to skate to music. It is discouraged to allow skaters to change groups at this point.
 

Announcer /

Ice Captain / Judging Panel/

Music Technicians
 Performance

A skater informs the Referee that their music tempo or quality is deficient

  1. If this happens within the first 30 seconds of the program, a skater may have a fresh start from the beginning of their program. Note: This is the only situation where a fresh start of a program is permitted in STAR events
  2. The Music Technicians should make an attempt to resolve the problem if possible. If there is a second copy of the music available then that can be played
  3. If the problem persists, follow the steps above re: when a skater’s music won’t play
  4. If the skater informs the Referee after the first 30 seconds of the program, the Referee should still try to resolve the problem, but no fresh start is given
  5. A fresh start of a program is only permitted once. If a skater stops again during their program, they must continue from the point of interruption
  6. There is no deduction or penalty for a fresh start at any STAR level.
 Skater / Announcer/ Music Technicians
 Performance  An interruption or stop in the music or any other adverse condition unrelated to the competitor’s equipment, such as lighting, ice condition, etc. occurs  
  1. The Referee shall blow their whistle to signal the competitor(s) to stop skating
  2. The Referee should take note of the approximate time where the interruption took place
  3. The Referee should instruct the skater to stand by until the situation can be resolved
  4. The Referee should liaise with the Tech Rep if needed and wait to be informed that the situation is resolved
  5. Once it is possible for the skater to continue skating, call the skater over to let them know where they are to begin the program
  6. Request the Music Technicians restart the program music at the approximate point of interuption
  7. Speak to the judging panel to inform them of where the skater is to begin again
  8. There is no deduction in STAR 2, 3 or 4 when this situation occurs 
    Note: If the skater repeats any elements, only the first attempt shall be considered in the panel’s assessments.
  9. If the interruption lasts longer than 10 minutes, the Referee should grant a second warm-up period for the skaters within the affected warm-up group that have not yet skated
 

Tech Rep / Announcer/ Ice Captain /

Judging Panel
 Performance  A skater becomes injured or another adverse condition related to his or her equipment (such as health problems or unexpected damage to clothing or equipment) impedes his or her skating.  
  1. The Referee must decide the point at which the skater requires assistance or the situation poses a safety risk to the skater and blow their whistle to signal to the skater to stop skating.
  2. The Referee should take note of the approximate time in the program where the interruption took place.
  3. If the adverse condition can be remedied without delay, the competitor(s) shall immediately continue from the point of interruption.
  4. Call the skater over to let them know where they are to begin the program.
  5. Speak to the Music Technicians to request they back up the program music to the approximate point of interruption.
  6. Speak to the judging panel to inform them of where the skater is to begin again.
  7. There is no interruption deduction applied in STAR 2, 3 or 4 when this situation occurs.
  8. If a remedy is not possible without delay, the referee will allow a period of up to three minutes for the competitor to resume skating from the point of interruption.
  9. This time period commences immediately after the competitor stops skating or they are signaled to do so by the referee, whichever is earlier.
  10. There is no interruption deduction applied in STAR 2, 3 or 4 when this situation occurs
  11. If at the end of the three minutes they cannot continue their performance, they are to be considered withdrawn.
  12. If this happens, ask the Announcer to announce their withdrawal and then ensure the Judge panel indicates the withdrawal on the marking sheet
 Skater / Coach / Tech Rep / Announcer