Following are the explanations for terms used in ice dancing:
- LONG AXIS: A straight line that divides the ice surface into two halves lengthwise (midline).
- SHORT AXIS: A straight line that divides the ice surface into two halves crosswise.
- CONTINUOUS AXIS: An imaginary line running around the ice surface that serves as the basis for the dance pattern. Usually the continuous axis consists of two lines running parallel to the long axis of the ice surface, approximately halfway between the long axis and the sides. These lines are joined at each end of the ice surface by a semi-circle. These semi-circles are flattened in some dances so that they run almost parallel to the ends of the ice surface. In circular dances, such as the Kilian, the continuous axis approximates a circle. The continuous axis of the Paso Doble is an oval.
- TRANSVERSE AXIS: An imaginary line intersecting the continuous axis of a dance at right angles.
The pattern of a dance is the design of the dance on the ice. The diagram of a dance includes all the information needed to execute one complete pattern of the dance.
- SET PATTERN DANCE: A dance for which the location, direction and curvature of all edges to be skated are designated in the diagram. This diagram must be followed as closely as possible.
- OPTIONAL PATTERN DANCE: A dance for which the pattern may be altered by a couple provided that the original step sequences, positions and timing are maintained. Each repetition of the altered pattern must be executed in the same manner and the restart must be commenced from the same place.
- RIM/EDGE/BORDER DANCE: a dance with a step sequence that requires a shorter or longer distance than is available in one circuit of the rink. The second sequence, therefore, will not begin at the original starting point of the dance.
- LOBE: Any sequence of steps on one side of the continuous axis that is approximately semi-circular in shape.
- CIRCUIT: One full round of the ice surface.
- INTRODUCTORY STEPS: All dances may be started with optional introductory steps. They shall not exceed the introductory phrasing.
- START: The first step after the introductory steps. The referee may announce the approximate location at which the dances must be started.
- SEQUENCE OF STEPS: The prescribed order of the steps that compose one pattern of a Pattern Dance or any portion thereof, or a series of prescribed or un-prescribed steps, turns and movements in an Original and Free Dance.
There are the following types of Step Sequences for Original and Free Dances and which may be skated either in hold or not-touching as is specified for the season.
Step Sequences in hold must be skated in any known dance hold or variation thereof (unless otherwise specified). Any separation to change a hold must not exceed one measure of music.
Not Touching Step Sequence must incorporate mirror and/or matching footwork. Both partners may cross each other’s tracing(s) and may switch from matching footwork to mirror or vice versa. The partners should remain as close together as possible, but they must not touch. The distance between the skaters should generally not be more than 2 arms length apart, except for short distances when the saters are performing required edges and turns in opposite directions.
All Step Sequences are divided into two (2) following groups A and B:
GROUP A. STRAIGHT LINE STEP SEQUENCE:
- a) Midline: skated along the full length of the center (long) axis of the ice surface.
- b) Diagonal: skated from one corner of the ice rink to the diagonally opposite other corner (as fully as possible from corner to corner).
GROUP B. CURVED STEP SEQUENCES (may be skated in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction):
- c) Circular: one complete circle utilizing the full width of the ice surface (on the short axis of the rink).
- d) Serpentine: commences at the center (long) axis at one end of the rink and progresses in three bold curves or in two bold curves (S-shaped) and ends at the centre (long) axis of the opposite end of the rink; (pattern utilizing the full width of the ice surface).
Step - The visible tracing on the ice that is executed on one foot. It may consist of an edge, change of edge, a turn such as a three or counter (see 3.5), or a flat which is usually not acceptable.
a) Edge – the visible tracing on the ice produced bya a Skater skating on one foot that is on a distinct curve.
b) Change of Edge – the visible tracing on the ice that changes from one distinct curve to another distinct curve with no change of foot.
c) Flat – the visible double tracin on the ice that is straight (imprinted by the Skater skating on one foot on both edges of the blade).
- OPEN STROKE: A step started close beside the skating foot without crossing in front or behind. It should be noted that on all forward edges the free leg is held behind before coming to the skating foot for the next step. On all backward edges the free leg is held forward before returning to the skating foot for the next step.
- CROSS STROKE: A step started with the feet crossed so that the impetus or power is gained from the outside edge of the foot that is becoming the free foot. (Note - legs cross above the knees.)
- CROSSED STEP FORWARD: A step in which the free foot is placed on the ice on the outer edge side of the skating foot with the free leg crossed in front of the skating leg. (Note - legs cross below the knees.)
- CROSSED STEP BEHIND: A step in which the free foot is placed on the ice on the outer edge side of the skating foot with the free leg crossed behind the skating leg. (Note - the legs cross below the knees.)
- SIMPLE CHASSÉ: A series of two edges (usually outside, inside) in which on the second edge the free foot is placed on the ice beside the skating foot, but not ahead of it, and the free foot is lifted with the blade parallel to the ice.
- CROSSED CHASSÉ: The same except that on the second step the free foot crosses the skating foot (crossed behind the skating foot when skating forward or crossed in front when skating backward).
- SLIDE CHASSÉ: The same except that on the second step the free foot slides off the ice in front when the skater is skating forward and behind when the skater is skating backward (e.g. The man’s step 32 in the Starlight Waltz).
- PROGRESSIVE (RUN): A step or sequence of steps in which the free foot passes the skating foot before is it placed on the ice, thereby bringing the new free foot off the ice trailing the new skating foot.
- ROLL: A short or long, forward or backward edge.
- CROSS ROLL: A roll started with the action of the free foot approaching the skating foot from the side so as to strike the ice almost at right-angles to the skating foot, started forward with the feet crossed in front or backward with the feet crossed behind. The impetus is gained from the outside edge of the skating foot as it becomes the new skating foot. In this case, the change of lean to the curve in the opposite direction creates a “rolling movement”.
- SWING ROLL: A roll held for several beats of music during which, when skating backward, the free leg lifts and then first swings forward, then backward past the skating foot, then back beside to skate the next step. When skating forward, the free leg first swings backward, then forward and then back beside to skate the next step. The swing of the leg gives the sense of a “rolling movement”.
- SLIP STEP: A step skated in a straight line with the blades of both skates being held flat on the ice. The weight is over the skating leg that may be well bent or straight while the free foot slides forward on the ice to full extension.
- TOE STEP: A step where the skater steps from one toe to the other without jumping.
3.5 TURNS (On One Foot)
A rotational movement in which the skater moves from forward to backward or backward to forward.
- THREE: A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an inside edge or an inside edge to an outside edge, with the exit curve continuing on the same lobe as the entry curve. The skater turns in the direction of the curve.
- TOUCHDOWN THREE TURN: A three turn in which the weight is almost immediately transferred to the free foot as it becomes the skating foot for the next step. The turn is made from a forward outside three to the backward outside edge of the opposite foot without full weight transfer, then the skater immediately steps forward onto the original foot (example Austrian Waltz steps 1-2). Such a sequence may be skated with the forward or backward, inside or outside three turns. May be skated alone or as a couple side by side.
- AMERICAN WALTZ TYPE THREE TURN: A three turn from an outside edge in which the free leg is extended and the toe and hip are well turned out and held over the tracing. The instep of the free foot is drawn close to the heel of the skating foot as the turn is made. After the turn onto an inside edge, the free foot is extended back of the tracing before being brought back beside the skating foot in time for the next step.
- EUROPEAN WALTZ TYPE THREE TURN: A three turn which begins as in (3). After the turn the back inside edge is held for one beat before the weight is transferred to the free foot as it becomes the skating foot.
- RAVENSBERGER WALTZ TYPE THREE TURN: An inside three turn that begins as in (3) and (4) with the free leg extended over the tracing and left behind during the turn, and swings through after its completion in front of the tracing before being brought back beside the skating foot in time for the next step. (Example: Man’s step 1, in Ravensberger Waltz).
- WALK-AROUND-THREES: Threes turned by a Couple at the same time around the common axis. The partners skate these turns in Waltz hold (example Austrian Waltz step 31, Ravensberger Waltz steps 39-40) or offset Tango hold (Golden Waltz steps 1-5).
- BRACKET: A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an inside edge or an inside edge to an outside edge, with the exit curve continuing on the same lobe as the entry curve. The skater turns in the direction opposite to the curve.
- ROCKER: A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an outside edge or an inside edge to an inside edge, with the exit curve on a different lobe from the entry curve. The skater turns in the direction of the entry curve.
- COUNTER: A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an outside edge or an inside edge to an inside edge, with the exit curve on a different lobe from the entry curve. The skater turns in the direction opposite to the entry curve (i.e. in the direction of the exit curve).
- SWING ROCKER OR COUNTER: A type of rocker or counter in which the free foot swings smoothly past close to the skating foot before the turn and after the turn is either moved past the skating foot and held behind over the tracing or allowed to swing forward.
A turn from one foot to the other in which the entry and exit curves are continuous and of equal depth. The change of foot is from an outside edge to an outside edge or from and inside edge to an inside edge.
- OPEN MOHAWK: A mohawk in which the heel of the free foot is placed on the ice at the inner side of the skating foot, the angle between the two feet being optional. Following the weight transfer, the immediate position of the new free foot is behind the heel of the new skating foot (e.g. the man's steps 8 and 9 and the lady's steps 12 and 13 in the Fourteenstep).
- CLOSED MOHAWK: A mohawk in which the instep of the free foot is held at the heel of the skating foot until the free foot is placed on the ice behind the heel of the skating foot. Following the weight transfer, the immediate position of the new free foot is in front of the new skating foot (e.g. steps 11 and 12 of the Rocker Foxtrot).
- SWING MOHAWK: An open or closed mohawk in which the free leg swings forward closely past the skating leg, and then back to the skating foot to execute the turn (e.g. steps 20 and 21 of the Harris Tango).
A turn from one foot to the other in which the curve of the exit edge is in the opposite direction to that of the entry edge. The change of foot is from outside edge to inside edge or inside edge to outside edge. Unless otherwise specified in the dance description, the free foot is placed on the ice close to the skating foot. The entry and exit edge are of equal depth.
- OPEN CHOCTAW: A choctaw in which the free foot is placed on the ice at the inner side of the skating foot. Following the weight transfer the immediate position of the new free foot is behind the heel of the new skating foot.
- CLOSED CHOCTAW: A choctaw in which the instep of the free foot is held at the heel of the skating foot until the free foot is placed on the ice behind the heel of the skating foot. Following the weight transfer the immediate position of the new free foot is in front of the new skating foot (e.g. steps 12 and 13 of the Blues).
- SWING CHOCTAW: An open or closed choctaw in which the free leg swings forward closely past the skating leg and then back to the skating foot to execute the turn (e.g. steps 5 and 6 [first part] of the Quickstep).
- CROSSED OPEN CHOCTAW: A choctaw in which the outside of the free foot is held in front of and at right angles to the skating foot. The hip is open after the turn. It may be wide-stepped (e.g. Steps 11-12 of the Rhumba).
- TWIZZLE: A traveling turn on one foot with one or more rotations which is quickly rotated with a continuous, uninterrupted action. The weight remains on the skating foot with the free foot in any position during the turn then placed beside the skating foot to skate the next step. A series of checked three turns is not acceptable as this does not constitute a single action. If the traveling action stops during the execution, the Twizzle, it becomes a Solo Spin (Pirouette);
- The four (4) different types of entry edges for Twizzles are as follows:
- Forward Inside (FI)
- Forward Outside (FO)
- Backward Inside (BI)
- Backward Outside (BO)
- SERIES OF SYNCHRONIZED TWIZZLES: At least two twizzles for each partner with up to three (3) small steps between twizzles.
- SERIES OF SEQUENTIAL TWIZZLES: At least two twizzles for each partner with up to one (1) step between twizzles.
- side by side in the same direction (matching)
- side by side in opposite direction (mirror)
- following one another (one skating forward and/or backward and the other skating forward and/or backward)
- SOLO SPIN/PIROUETTE: A spinning movement performed on one foot on the spot by one partner alone (with or without the assistance of the other partner) or by both partners simultaneously (around separate centers).
- DANCE SPINS:
- SPIN: A spin skated by the couple together in any hold. It should be performed on the spot around a common axis on one foot by each partner simultaneously.
- COMBO SPIN: A spin performed as above after which one change of foot is made by both partners simultaneously and further rotations occur.
- BASIC POSITIONS IN THE DANCE SPINS:
- Upright position - performed on one foot with skating leg straight or slightly bent and upper body upright (on a nearly vertical axis, arched back or bent to side
- Sit position – performed on one foot with skating leg bent in a one-legged crouch position and free leg forward, to the side or back
- Camel position – performed on one foot with skating leg straight or slightly bent and body bent forward and free leg extended or bent upward on a horizontal line or higher
3.10 LEG AND FOOT POSITIONS
- COUPEE: A movement in which the free foot is held up in contact with the skating leg from an open hip position so that the free foot is at a right angles to the leg of the skating foot.
- PASSE: A movement in which the free foot is held up to the side of the skating leg from a closed hip position so that the free foot is parallel to the leg of the skating foot.
- ATTITUDE: The free leg is bent, and brought up out and behind at a ninety degree angle to the leg of the skating foot.
3.11 DANCE LIFTS
- DANCE LIFT: An action in which one partner is elevated to any height, sustained there and set down on the ice. Any rotations and/or positions and changes of such positions during the lift are permitted. Lifts should enhance the music chosen and express its character and should be performed in an elegant manner without obvious feats of strength and awkward and/or undignified actions and poses.
The following movements and/or poses during the lift are not allowed and will be called as “illegal”:
- lifting hand(s) of the lifting partner higher than his head*
- lying or sitting on the partner’s head
- sitting or standing on the partner’s shoulders or back
- lifted partner in upside down split pose (with angle between thighs more than 45 degrees)**
- lifting partner swinging the lifted partner around by holding the skate(s)/boot(s) or leg(s) only with fully extended arms and/or by holding the hand(s) with full arm extension by both partners.
*It is not considered illegal if:
- the point of contact of lifting hand/arm of the lifting partner with any part of the body of the lifted partner is not sustained higher than the lifting partner’s head;
- the lifting hand/arm which is used for support or balancing only or which touches any part of the body of the lifted partner is not sustained by the lifting partner higher than his head for more than 2 seconds.
**A brief movement through an upside down split pose (with any angle between thighs) will be permitted if it is not established (sustained) or if it is used only to change of pose.
SHORT LIFTS – the duration of the lift should not exceed six (6) seconds:
- STATIONARY LIFT: A lift that is executed on the spot (stationary location) by the lifting partner who may or may not be rotating.
- STRAIGHT LINE LIFT: A lift in which the lifting partner travels in a straight line in any position on one foot or two feet.
- CURVE LIFT: A lift in which the lifting partner travels on one curve (lobe) in any position on one foot or two feet.
- ROTATIONAL LIFT: A lift in which the lifting partner rotates in one (clockwise or anticlockwise) direction while traveling across the ice.
LONG LIFTS – the duration of the lift should not exceed twelve (12) seconds:
- REVERSE ROTATIONAL LIFT: A lift in which the lifting partner rotates in one direction and then in another direction while traveling across the ice.
- SERPENTINE LIFT: A lift in which the lifting partner travels on two different curves of approximately similar curvature and duration. The change of direction of the pattern may incorporate a turn of not more than ½ rotation. The pattern must be serpentine shaped (“S”). After the completion of the 2 curves the Couple may skate additional curves or rotate (up to 1 rotation) but this will not be counted.
- COMBINATION LIFT: A lift combining two of the above types of lifts (a), (b), (c) or (d).
3.12 DANCE JUMPS
- JUMP: A jump of not more than one (1) revolution, which may be executed by only one (1) partner at a time. This jump may be performed either holding hand(s) or separated, but the distance between partners must not be more than two (2) arms-lengths apart.
- DANCE JUMP: A small jump not more than 1/2 revolution used to change foot or direction. Such jumps must be executed in dance position or at not more than two (2) arms-lengths apart. Both partners may jump at the same time.
- HOPS: Small jumps without revolution.
3.13 DANCE HOLDS
- LEADING HAND: The leading hand of the man is the right hand except in the case of “reversed” hold when it is the left hand.
- HAND IN HAND HOLD:
- Facing the same direction – The partners face in the same direction and are skating side by side or one behind the other with their arms extended and their hands clasped. Use of this position in the Original Dance and/or Free Dance is not encouraged. A variation of this is the arm-in-arm side by side position which is acceptable.
- Facing in opposite directions – The partners usually face each other while one skates backward and the other skates forward with the arms extended to the side but sometimes the position can be skated back to back (e.g. Cha Cha Congelado). Use of this position in the Original Dance and/or Free Dance with arms fully extended toward each other is usually not permitted.
- CLOSED OR WALTZ HOLD: The partners are directly opposite each other. One partner faces forward while the other partner faces backward. The man's right hand is placed firmly on his partner's back at the shoulder blade with the elbow raised and the arm bent sufficiently to hold the lady close to him. The left hand of the lady is placed on the shoulder of the man so that her arm rests comfortably, elbow to elbow, on his upper arm. The left arm of the man and the right arm of the lady are extended comfortably at shoulder height. Their shoulders remain parallel.
- OPEN OR FOXTROT HOLD: The hand and arm positions are similar to those of the closed or waltz position. The partners simply turn slightly away from each other so that they both skate in the same direction.
- CROSSED FOXTROT HOLD: The partners are in the same position as above except that the man’s right arm passes behind the lady and his right hand is on her right hip, and the lady’s left arm passes behind the man and her left hand is on his left hip.
- OUTSIDE OR TANGO HOLD: The partners face in opposite directions - one partner skating forward; the other partner backward. However, unlike the closed position, the partners are offset with the man to the right or left of the lady so that the front of his hip is in line with the front of her corresponding hip. Tight hip to hip position is undesirable since it impedes flow.
- KILIAN HOLD: The partners face in the same direction with the lady to the right of the man and his right shoulder behind her left. The left arm of the lady is extended across the front of the man's body to hold his left hand. His right arm crosses behind the lady's back to clasp her right hand. Both right hands rest over her hip bone.
- REVERSED KILIAN HOLD: This position is similar to the Kilian position but with the lady at the man's left.
- OPEN KILIAN HOLD: The man's left hand holds the lady's left hand, with his right hand resting over the lady's left hip or behind her back. The lady's right arm is extended. The hold may also be reversed.
- CROSSED KILIAN HOLD: The lady's left arm is extended across the front of the man's body to his left hand, while his right arm is extended across in front of her body with both partners' right hands resting clasped over her hip. This hold may also be reveed.
- SHADOW DANCE: The partners face in the same direction and are skating side by side with no more than one arm’s length distance between them.
- BEAT: A note defining the regular recurring divisions of a piece of music.
- TEMPO: The speed of the music in beats or measures per minute.
- RHYTHM: The regularly repeated pattern of accented and unaccented beats, which gives the music its character.
- MEASURE (BAR): A unit of music which is defined by the periodic recurrence of the accent. Such units are of equal duration.
- WEAK BEAT: While it may be technically correct to skate to the minor accent (weak beat), the resulting interpretation and expression of the character of the dance is not correct and must be penalized by the evaluators/judges.
3.15 PATTERN DANCES
- LISTING OF PATTERN DANCES: Pattern Dances and corresponding dance level, dance test, ISU number if applicable and the Skate Canada number where the Pattern dance description and diagram can be located are listed below:
DANCE LEVEL DANCE
ISU NO. SKATE CANADA NO. Primary Preliminary Dutch Waltz n/a 3651 Canasta Tango n/a 3652 Baby Blues n/a 3653 Junior Bronze Swing n/a 3654 Fiesta Tango n/a 3655 Willow Waltz n/a 3656 Intermediate Senior Bronze Ten Fox n/a 3657 Fourteenstep 1 3658 European Waltz 4 3659 Junior Silver Keats Foxtrot 2 3660 Harris Tango1 2 3661 American Waltz 5 3662 Rocker Foxtrot 3 3663 Senior Senior Silver Paso Doble 16 3664 Starlight Waltz 9 3665 Blues 24 3666 Kilian 12 3667 Cha Cha Congelado 19 3679 Gold Viennese Waltz 7 3668 Westminster Waltz 6 3669 Quickstep 14 3670 Argentine Tango 22 3671 Silver Samba 20 3677 Diamond Ravensburger Waltz 10 3672 Tango Romantica 23 3673 Yankee Polka 13 3674 Rhumba 17 3675 Austrian Waltz 8 3676 Golden Waltz 11 3678
- DANCE SEQUENCES REQUIRED IN TESTS AND COMPETITIONS: The following chart indicates the number of dance sequences (patterns) to be completed by skaters for tests and competitions:
Evaluated Test (minimum)*
Competition and Competitive Test Dutch Waltz 2 3 Canasta Tango 2 3 Baby Blues 2 3 Swing Dance 1 2 Fiesta Tango 2 4 Willow Waltz 2 3 Ten-Fox 2 4 Fourteenstep 3 4 European Waltz 2 2 Foxtrot 2 4 Harris Tango 2 2 American Waltz 2 2 Rocker Foxtrot 3 4 Paso Doble 2 3 Starlight Waltz 2 2 Blues 2 3 Kilian 4 6(4 for Novice) Cha Cha Congelado 2 2 Viennese Waltz 2 3 Westminster Waltz 2 2 Quickstep 3 4 Argentine Tango 2 2 Silver Samba 2 2 Ravensburger Waltz 2 2 Tango Romantica 2 2 Yankee Polka 2 2 Rhumba 3 4 Austrian Waltz 2 2 Golden Waltz 2 2
- PATTERN DANCE DESCRIPTION AND DIAGRAMS:
- RELATIONSHIP OF MUSIC TO THE STEPS: The steps of the dances are numbered on the diagrams for easy reference. The relationship of the music to the steps of the dances is shown by the numbers placed beside each step. The diagrams show the rhythm patterns by numbers 1-4 for four-beat rhythms such as foxtrots and marches, and 1-6 for the six-beat and 1-3 for the three-beat rhythm patterns of the waltzes. A notation such as RFOI 4+2 beats means that the right forward outside edge is held for four beats, and the right forward inside edge for two beats. Similarly, LFO3 3+3, means that the left forward outside edge is held for three beats, then a three is turned on the count of four.
- STEPS: All steps are open strokes unless specifically stated otherwise. Refer to the chart of abbreviations in para d).
- SEQUENCE OF STEPS: The sequence of the steps, their relation to the music and their relation to the continuous and transverse axes are shown in the dance diagrams.
- LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN ICE DANCING DIAGRAMS AND CHARTS OF STEPS:
3 - three turn R - right foot 1 & 1 - one and one Rff - right foot forward “and” - between beats Rk - rocker . . . - music retard Sc - slight change B - backward SlCh - slide chasse Br - bracket Spr E - spread eagle Ch - chasse Sw - swing Cho - choctaw SwCho - swing choctaw Cl - closed SwCtr - swing counter ClCho -closed choctaw SwMo - swing mohawk CR - cross roll SwR - swing roll Ct - count SwRk - swing rocker Ctr - counter Sw3 - swing three F - forward SwTw - swing twizzle I - inside edge Td - touchdown InBa - Ina Bauer Tw - twizzle L - left foot “Tw” -“twizzle-like” motion Lff - left foot forward Wd -wide step (or “*”) Lu - lunge * - wide step Mo - mohawk XB -cross step behind O - outside edge XB- -cross behind Op - open Xcut -cross cut OpCho -open choctaw XF -cross step in front Qcs - quick cross-over slip XF- -cross in front Qlb - quick lift backward XFt 3 -cross foot three Qlf - quick lift forward XFtTw -cross foot twizzle Pr - progressive (run) Pvt - pivot
- SEE APPENDIX A FOR REVISED DESCRIPTIONS, CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS OF PATTERN DANCES: Diagrams and descriptions for the Preliminary to Diamond Dances are included in Appendix A of this section of the Technical Handbook.
- Additional Notes re Revised Pattern Dance Descriptions, Charts and Diagrams:
- Some turns formerly called twizzles are now described as “Twizzle-like motions (“Tw”) which means that while the body performs one full continuous rotation, the skating foot technically executes less than a full turn followed by a step forward (e.g. Austrian Waltz -lady’s step 13b; Argentine Tango - lady’s step 23; Tango Romantica -man’s step 5.) Other twizzles remain unchanged.
- The shapes of manyu of the diagrams have been modified to correspond with patterns being currently skated.
- All diagrams show the side to start the dance as indicated by a box showing the location of the judge’s stand.
- “Counts” refer to the “measure” of the music; “beats” refer to the musical count of the “step”.
- A hyphen (-) between steps on two feet (e.g. RBO-LBI) indicates “skated on two feet” or “both feet on ice”.
- A “slash” (/) between steps means “followed by another on the same step” (e.g. RFO3/RBI3)