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Figure Skating Terms Defined - 2.0 Free Skating

2.1 JUMPS DESCRIBED

 

  1. In the table on the following chart, all jumps are shown for the take-off edge on the right foot. In every case the left foot may be used, and the landing will be on the opposite foot to the one listed. The nature of the edges and other details will not change.
  2. In some jumps the toe of the free foot is used to assist the take-off or landing.
  3. “Normal” direction of rotation means that the body in the air rotates in the same direction as it does on the take-off edge. “Reverse” direction of rotation means that the body in the air rotates in the direction opposite to the way it does on the take-off edge.
  4. The number of turns is given to the nearest half turn only, and is based on the direction of travel (forward or backward) of the take-off and landing edges.
  5. Certain optional landings are possible in the case of jumps with toe landings. These are listed for the “half flip” and “half Lutz” but can be used with the others if desired.
  6. This table does not include every possible jump; only the most common ones are given. New jumps, well performed, should be given special credit by the evaluators/judges, both in tests and in competitions. Several jumps have alternate names which are shown in the table.
  7. A “jump combination” is a sequence of two or more jumps in which the landing edge of the first jump serves as the take-off edge for the second and so on. There is no change of foot or turn between the jumps, although the toe may be used to assist the take-off.
  8.   

    1. Jump Sequence (STARSkate test)
      A jump sequence may consist of any number of jumps of any number of revolutions which may be linked by non-listed jumps immediately following each other, while maintaining the jump
      rhythm (knee). There can be not more than two (2) three turns/Mohawks during the sequence; there can be no cross-overs or stroking during the sequence. A jump sequence, consisting of only one listed jump together with other non-listed jumps is not considered a jump-sequence but will count as a solo jump.
    2. Jump Sequence (Competitive test and competition and STARSkate competition)
      A jump sequence may consist of any number of jumps of any number of revolutions that may be linked by non-listed jumps and/or hops immediately following each other while maintaining the jump rhythm (knee); there can be no turns/steps*, crossovers or stroking during the sequence.”
      * Turns: three turns, twizzles, brackets, loops, counters, rockers.
      Steps: running steps, toe steps, chasses, mohawks, choctaws, curves with change of edge, cross-rolls.
      Any kinds of hops and unlisted jumps inside the Sequence are allowed.
      From the moment the jump sequence does not fulfill the above requirements, the remainder of the jump sequence will be ignored and the element will be called “name of the first jump(s) plus sequence”.
  9. TABLE OF JUMPS:

 

NAME OF JUMP TAKE-OFF ROTATION LANDING
  EDGE TOE DIRECTION TURNS TOE EDGE
Three RFO no normal 1/2 no RBI
One-Foot Axel Paulsen RFO no normal 1-1/2 no RBI
Double One-Foot Axel Paulsen RFO no normal 2-1/2 no RBI
Waltz RFO no normal I/2 no LBO
Axel Paulsen RFO no normal 1-1/2 no LBO
Double Axel Paulsen RFO no normal 2-1/2 no LBO
Triple Axel Paulsen RFO no normal 3-1/2 no LBO
Inside Three RFI no normal 1/2 no RBO
Inside Axel Paulsen RFI no normal  1-1/2  no  RBO
 Double Inside Axel Paulsen  RFI  no  normal  2-1/2  no  RBO
Loop (Rittberger) RBO no normal 1 no RBO
Double Loop RBO no normal 2 no RBO
Triple Loop RBO no normal 3 no RBO
Toe Loop (Cherry Flip) RBO yes normal 1 no RBO
Double Toe Loop RBO yes normal 2 no RBO
Triple Toe Loop RBO yes normal 3 no RBO
Toe Split Loop* RBO yes normal 1 no RBO
Mazurka RBO yes normal 1/2 yes LFO
Half Loop (Euler) RBO no normal 1 no LBI
NAME OF JUMP TAKE-OFF ROTATION LANDING
  EDGE TOE DIRECTION TURNS EDGE TOE
Double Half Loop RBO no normal 2 no LBI
Triple Half Loop RBO no normal 3 no LBI
Salchow RBI no normal 1 no LBO
Double Salchow RBI no normal 2 no LBO
Triple Salchow RBI no normal 3 no LBO
One-Foot Salchow RBI no normal 1 no RBI
Double One-Foot Salchow RBI no normal 2 no RBI
Half Flip RBI yes normal 1/2 yes LFI/RFO
Flip (Toe Salchow) RBI yes   normal    1 no LBO
One-and-Half Flip RBI yes normal 1-1/2 yes RFO
Double Flip RBI yes  normal 2 no LBO
Triple Flip   RBI yes normal 3 no LBO
Split* RBI yes normal 1/2 yes LFI
Split Flip* RBI yes normal 1 no LBO
Stag** RBI  yes normal 1/2 yes LFI
Half Lutz RBO yes reverse 1/2 yes LFI/RFO
Lutz RBO yes reverse 1 no LBO
Double Lutz RBO yes reverse 2 no LBO
Triple Lutz RBO yes  reverse 3 no LBO
Toeless Lutz RBO no reverse 1 no LBO
Half Split Lutz*  RBO yes reverse 1/2 yes  LFI
Split Lutz* RBO yes  reverse 1 no LBO
One-Foot Lutz RBO yes reverse 1 no RBI
Double One-Foot Lutz RBO yes reverse 2 no RBI
Walley (Pat Low) RBI no reverse 1 no RBO
Toe Walley RBI yes reverse 1 no RBO
Double Toe Walley RBI yes reverse 2 no RBO

 * legs in split position during jump

** legs in stag position

Abbreviations:

R - right
L - left
F - forward
B - backward
O - outside edge
I - inside edge

 

2.2 SPINS DESCRIBED

  1. ROTATION: There are two main groups of spins according to the sense of rotation:
    • “forward” spins: in the sense of a forward outside three turn or a backward inside three turn.
    • “back” spins: in the sense of a forward inside three turn or a backward outside three turn.
  2. USE OF THE BLADE: It should be noted that spins done on the “flat of the blade” may actually be done on tiny circles, usually inside edge. Where a “toe” spin is specified, the weight of the skater will generally be carried partly on the main part of the blade as well. The correct spinning edge for a back spin is backward outside.
  3. NEW SPINS: The spins listed in (4) to (8) below do not give all possible spins or combinations. Many other possibilities exist or may be invented at some time. Evaluators/Judges should give special credit for originality with good performance.
  4. TWO-FOOT SPINS: Spins in which the weight of the skater remains distributed on both feet:
    • Simple two-foot spin: feet approximately parallel
    • Cross-foot spin: feet crossed toe-to-toe
  5. ONE-FOOT SPINS: Spins executed on one foot only:
    • Upright one-foot spin: on flat of blade or toe
    • Layback/sideways leaning spin: on flat of blade
    • Sit spin: in sitting position on flat of blade
    • Broken-leg spin: on flat of blade
    • Camel spin: free leg approximately horizontal – on flat of blade
  6. FLYING SPINS: Spins that are entered from a jump and landed in the spinning position:
    • Flying camel spin 
    • Flying sit spin: forward outside edge, jump to forward sit spin
    • Flying spin changing foot of landing: forward outside edge jump to back sit spin
    • Axel sit spin: Axel jump, landing in back sit spin
  7. COMBINATION SPIN:
    1. A spin which consists of: 
      • change(s) of position only;
      • change(s) of foot only; or.
      • change(s) of position and foot.
    2. For tests only, the minimum number of rotations in each position in a combination spin is two.
    3. The spin combinations required in the Short Programs for Ladies, Men and Pairs have been further defined respectively in Section 5000 of Technical Handbook.
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