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B - General Technical Guidelines for All Synchronized Skating Competitions & Championships

1.0 DEFINITIONS

1.1 SYNCHRONIZED SKATING

Synchronized Skating is a specialized discipline of skating involving groups of twelveeight or more skaters performing various group formations and maneuvers. The objective is for the team to perform as one unit, executing circles, blocks, lines, wheels and intersections in unison to the music, while demonstrating quality edges, power and flow.


2.0 DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL ELEMENTS


2.1 GENERAL TERMS

Following are the explanations for terms used in Synchronized Skating:

 

  1. Additional Features: A term used for describing technical content that increases the difficulty of an element within a specified Difficulty Group of an element. Additional features are features such as Step Sequences, Free Skating Moves, Free Skating Elements and Point of Intersection that are divided into groups according to their difficulty which maybecome part of the Difficulty Groups of Elements and Step Sequences. Some Additional Features are required in a Short Program. Additional Features are optional in Free Skating. Examples of additional features are: body movement, change of axis, change of configuration, change of rotational direction, pivoting, traveling, etc. The additional features for each element will be updated yearly and published in Skate Canada and ISU communications.
  2. Axis (Synchronized Skating): Axis refers to the imaginary line(s) which divide the ice surface (long axis, short axis, diagonal axis, continuous axis). A turn(s) or pattern(s) is executed on an axis.
  3. Axis of Intersection: Refers to the axis where the skaters are passing /interesting with one another. In the case of a collapsing Intersection (box, triangle, etc.), the axis of intersection is defined as the area within the shape once the corners have started to intersect and before the Skaters exit the intersection and pass through at the final corners.
  4. Configuration (Arrangement/Form): A configuration is thearrangement and/or form of the element. By arrangement it is meant that the skaters must change the team member beside whom they skate. By form it is meant that the number of lines, spokes and circles in an element (for example Block or Wheel, etc.).
  5. Change of Configuration: When the number of lines, spokes or circles change during an element.
  6. Difficulty Groups of Elements: All elements in Synchronized Skating are divided into groups of difficulty based on the number of AdditionalFeatures included. Lists of difficult groups of elements will be prepared each or every second year and published in a Skate Canada and ISU communication.
  7. Element: An element is a component that is part of a Synchronized Skating Short Program and Free Skating Program. Elements are divided into groups of difficulty.
  8. Fall: A fall is defined as a loss of control by a skater with the result that the majority of his/her own body weight is on the ice being supported by any other part of the body other than the bladed. E.g. hand(s), knee(s), back, buttock(s) or any part of the arm.
  9. Features: A term used for describing a technical content that increases the difficulty of an element. Features such as pivoting, travelling, body movements, etc. are updated annually and published in a Skate Canada and ISU Communication.Step Sequences, Free Skating Moves, Free Skating Elements and Point of Intersection are divided into groups according to their difficulty.
  10. Highlighting: A term used when a skater(s)one skater performs a movement that is away from and in contrast with thedistracting from the rest of the team. Highlighting movements are illegal and not permitted in Synchronized Skating.
  11. Holds: Basket weave, catch, hand, elbow, shoulder and no hold are some examples of different holds that may be used.
  12. Interlocking: a. Wheel: A spoke of a wheel must pass in-between at least two-spokes of the other wheel(s) b. Circle: A Skater in a circle must pass in-between at least two other Skaters of the other circle.
  13. Interaction between Skaters: The different Skaters cross paths, intersect, circle, mirror, pass by or are connected to each other.
  14. Mirror Image Pattern (applies to Moves in the Field in Free Skating only): Only one (1) free skating move may use a mirror image pattern. A mirror image pattern is shown when one half (1/2) of the team simultaneously uses a combination of both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions.
  15. Pair Move: A Pair move is defined as a free skating move when two (2) skaters are attached to each other either by one or both hands.
  16. Point of Intersection: The point of intersection is an Additional Feature of the Intersection Element.is defined as being the area approximately 1 meter before and after the exact point where skaters pass each other. In the case of a collapsing intersection (box, triangle, etc.) the point of intersection is defined as being the area when the majority of the skaters have reached approximately the half way point of that intersection.
  17. Retrogression: The team shows a movement in a direction opposite to that of the initial direction. The team must show a reverse of the first direction, before resuming the initial directionoriginal direction and axis (a slight deviation from the original axis is permitted).
  18. Skating Direction: Skating direction refers to skating either forwards or backwards (e.g. forward spirals and backward spirals).
  19. Sub-grouping: Sub-grouping refers to a subordinate or smaller group(s) without close relationship to the rest of the team; a division of the team into several smaller groups.
  20. Syncopated Choreography: Choreography or elements that have a rhythmic time delay in movement.
  21. Transition: A term used to describe sections of the program that occurs within Elements, during entrances and exits of Elements and as connecting Elements and executed in-between the required/optional Elements.
    1. In the Short Program, transitions may be comprised of varied and/or complex footwork, linking steps formationsand other movements to link the required elements, which also include the entrances and exits of the elements. No other connecting elements are allowed to link the required elements of a Short Program other than basic Element shapes (level base).
    2. In the Free Program, transitions may be comprised of varied and/or complex footwork, linking steps, movements, formations and other connecting elements linking all of the well balanced program required elements, which also include the entrances and exits of elements.Other connecting Elements are permitted to link all of the Well-Balanced Program required/optional Elements.

 


2.2 STEPS, AND TURNS AND LINKING STEPS

 

    1. STEPS

 

  • EDGES (See 4.0(1) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • FLAT (See 3.4 (c) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CHANGE OF EDGE (See 3.4 (b) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CHASSÉ (See 3.4 (5) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CROSS ROLL (See 3.4 (7) (a) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • PROGRESSIVE / RUN (See 3.4 (6) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • TOE STEPS MOVING: A step where the skaters move from one toe to the other without jumping as they travel down the ice.
  • LINKING STEPS: The visible tracing on the ice that is executed on one or two feet. They may consist of an edge, change of edge, chasses, cross rolls, crossovers, progressives, toe steps moving, dance jumps and small hops. Linking steps may be used as connecting steps between turns in the required Step Sequence.
  • OPEN STROKE (See 3.4 (1) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CROSS STROKE (See 3.4 (2) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CROSSED STEP FORWARD (See 3.4 (3) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CROSSED STEP BEHIND (See 3.4 (4) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • CROSSED CHASSÉ (See 3.4 (5)(b) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • ROLL(See 3.4 (7) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • SWING ROLL (See 3.4 (7)(b) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • SLIP STEP (See 3.4 (8) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
  • WALK AROUND threes (See 3.5 (6) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

 

  1. TURNS
    1. TURN (See 3.5 in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    2. THREE TURN (See 3.5 (1) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    3. BRACKET (See 3.5 (7) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    4. ROCKER (See 3.5 (8) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    5. COUNTER (See 3.5 (9) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    6. SWING ROCKER OR SWING COUNTER (See 3.5 (10) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    7. TWIZZLE (See 3.8 (1) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    8. CHOCTAW (See 3.7 (1) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    9. MOHAWK (See 3.6 in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).
    10. LOOP (SYNCHRONIZED SKATING): A one foot movement where the skater skates an oval pattern using the same edge. The entry and exit of the loop must cross. The loop must be clean cut without scrapes or points.
    11. TURNING METHOD: A technique in which a rotational movement occurs using either the same/one lobe (bracket, three turn, twizzle) or using two different lobes (counter, rocker) during the entry and exit of each turn.
    12. SMALL HOPS (See 3.12 (3) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(1) STEPS

A method of turning that is executed using two (2) feet such as Choctaws and Mohawks.

i. Choctaw - A step from one foot to the other in which the curve of the exit edge is opposite to that of the entry edge. The change of foot is from outside edge to inside edge or inside edge to outside edge. The entry and exit edge are of equal depth;

ii. Mohawk - A step from one foot to the other in which the entry and exit curves are continuous and of equal depth. The change of foot is from and outside edge to and outside edge or and inside edge to an inside edge

(2) TURNS

A rotational movement in which the Skater moves from forward to backward or backward to forward using one foot and on an edge and axis.

i. Bracket – A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an inside edge or an inside edge to an outside edge, with the exit curve continuing on the same lobe as the entry curve. The Skater turns in the direction opposite to the curve;

ii. Counter – A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an outside edge or an inside edge to an inside edge, with the exit curve on a different lobe from the entry curve. The Skater turns in the direction opposite to the entry curve (i.e. in the direction of the exit curve);

iii. Loop – A one-foot movement where the Skater skates an oval pattern using the same edge. The entry and exit of the loop must cross. The loop must be clean cut without scrapes or points;

iv. Rocker – A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an outside edge or an inside edge to an inside edge, with the exit curve on a different lobe from the entry curve. The Skater turns in the direction of the entry curve;

v. Three turn – A turn executed on one foot from an outside edge to an inside edge or an inside edge to an outside edge, with the exit curve continuing on the same lobe as the entry curve. The Skater turns in the direction of the curve;

vi. Twizzle - A traveling turn on one foot with one or more rotations that quickly rotate with a continuous (uninterrupted) action. The weight remains on the skating foot with the free foot in any position during the turn. A series of checked three turns is not acceptable, as this does not constitute a continuous action. If the traveling action stops during the execution, the twizzle becomes a solo spin.

(3) LINKING STEPS

The visible tracing on the ice that is executed on one (1) or two (2) feet. They may consist of an edge, change of edge, chasses, cross rolls, crossovers, progressives, toe steps moving, dance jumps and small hops. Linking steps may be used as connecting steps between turns in the Step Sequence, Additional Features, and in Features.

i. Change of edge - The visible tracing on the ice that changes from one distinct curve to another distinct curve with no change of foot;

ii. Chassé - A series of two (2) edges (usually outside, inside) in which on the second edge the free foot is place on the ice beside the skating foot, but not ahead of or behind it, and the free foot is lifted with the blade parallel to the ice;

iii. Cross Roll - A roll started with the action of the free foot approaching the skating foot from the side so as to strike the ice almost at right angles to the skating foot, started forward with the feet crossed in front or backward with the feet crossed behind;

iv. Crossover - A step or sequence of steps (push + cross) in which the free foot crosses the skating foot completely before it is placed on the ice;

v. Dance Jump - A small jump of not more than one (1) revolution used to change feet or skating direction;

vi. Edge - The visible tracing on the ice produced by a Skater skating on one foot that is on a distinct curve;

vii. Flat - The visible double tracing on the ice that is straight (imprinted by the Skater skating on one (1) foot on both edges of the blade);

viii. Progressive / Run - A step or sequence of steps in which the free foot passes the skating foot before it is placed on the ice, thereby bringing the new free foot off the ice trailing the new skating foot;

ix. Small Hop - A small jump without revolution;

x. Toe Steps - A step where the Skaters move from one (1) toe pick to the other toe pick without jumping with or without using rotations as they travel down the ice.

(4) TERMS USED DESCRIBING TURNS, STEPS AND LINKING STEPS

i. Different turns/steps - is a term that includes each of the listed types of turns and steps plus the four (4) different methods of execution;

ii. Different types of turns and steps - is a term that includes each of the listed turns and steps;

iii. Difficult turns – consists of Rocker, Counter, Bracket, Twizzles with 1½ or more rotation;

iv. Listed turns and steps - consists of three turn, Mohawk, Choctaw, Twizzle, Rocker, Counter, Bracket, Loop;

v. Method of execution – is a term which describes the four different manners each turn/step may be executed, considering the entry edge: a) forward inside, b) forward outside, c) backward inside and d) backward

(b) TOE STEPS MOVING: A step where the skaters move from one toe to the other without jumping as they travel down the ice.

(c) OPEN STROKE (See 3.4 (1) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(d) CROSS STROKE (See 3.4 (2) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(e) CROSSED STEP FORWARD (See 3.4 (3) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(f) CROSSED STEP BEHIND (See 3.4 (4) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(g) CROSSED CHASSÉ (See 3.4 (5)(b) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(h) ROLL(See 3.4 (7) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(i) SWING ROLL (See 3.4 (7)(b) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(j) SLIP STEP (See 3.4 (8) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).

(k) WALK AROUND threes (See 3.5 (6) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook).


2.3 FREE SKATING ELEMENT

Free skating elements such as jumps, jump combinations, jump sequences, assisted jumps, spins, lifts, death spirals, pair pivot, vaults are examples and are permitted in Synchronized Skating. Free skating elements are allowed in elements such as Movements in Isolation and Pair Element or as a transitional move between elements to increase the difficulty of transitions and add variety/complexity to the program. To get credit for the free skating element(s) each element must be executed correctly.

 

  1. DANCE JUMP (See 3.12 (2) in Figure Skating Terms Defined in the Technical handbook)
  2. JUMP (SYNCHRONIZED SKATING): A rotational type of movement of at least one (1) revolution during which both feet leave the ice. For Junior and Senior Free Skating, jumps of any a maximum of one and one-half (1 ½ ) revolutions are permitted, and for all other categories jumps of one (1) revolution are permitted.
  3. ASSISTED JUMP: A jump of not more than one (1) revolution, in which a skater(s) provides passive assistance to another skater(s) in a non-supportive manner. The take off must be done by a skater who jumps. In this action there is a continuous ascending and descending movement. The hands of a skater(s) providing the passive assistance may not rise higher than shoulder level height. Assisted jumps are allowed in free skating only.
  4. BUTTERFLY (PAIR OR INDIVIDUAL): The body is already in nearly horizontal position at the take-off. The free leg makes a wide, powerful rotational swing upwards so that it is higher than the upper part of the body and head. During the flight and on the landing, the body remains in a horizontal position. There is no number of revolutions required after the landing.
  5. JUMP SEQUENCE (Synchronized Skating): Consists of any number of jumps of no more than 1 or 1½any number of revolutions that may be linked with small hops and dance jumps, immediately following each other while maintaining the jump rhythm (knee); there can be no crossovers or stroking between jumps during the sequence.
  6. JUMP COMBINATION (Synchronized Skating): Consists of any number of jumps of no more thanat least 1 or 1 ½ revolutions than may be linked with turns, steps or with a slight touch down.
  7. LIFTS (Synchronized Skating): An action in which a skater(s) is/are lifted/ elevated to any height and set downeither by the lifting skaters or an action in which skater(s) are elevated to any height by themselves using body support from other skaters. Stationary or gliding lifts will be counted when held off the ice for more than three (3) seconds, while lifts that rotate will be counted as a lift independent of time in the air.Lifts may be executed stationary or while gliding. Any rotations and/or positions and changes of positions during the lift are permitted. The lifting skaters may rotate but not more than two and one-half (2 ½) revolutions. Lifts should enhance the music chosen and express its character, but not be a display of acrobatics. Undignified actions and poses are forbidden. The lifts are permitted in Open and Senior Free Skating only. 
    1. Pair Lift used in Synchronized Skating is an action in which one skater is elevated by one other skater and set down. Pair Lifts performed by only one (1) lifting skater who fully extends their lifting arms above the head are illegal.
    2. Group Lift used in Synchronized Skating is an action in which one (1) or more skaters is (are) elevated to any height by two (2) or more skaters and set down. A lifting skater(s) must have at least one skate on the ice at all times.
      • Group Lift with 2 supporting skaters
      • Group Lift with 3 supporting skaters
      • Group Lift with 4 supporting skaters
    3. Types of Lifts (Pair Lift or Group Lift) used in Synchronized Skating:
      1. Stationary Lift is a lift that is executed on the spot(stationary location) by the lifting skater(s).
      2. Lift that glide during the preparation, lift and exit
        • All skaters in a Group Lift/both skaters in Pair Lift must be skating or gliding as they prepare for the lift, 
        • The supporting/lifting skater(s) must continue to glide as a lift is executed.
        • All skaters in a Group Lift/both skaters in Pair Lift must continue to glide during the exit of the lift. The lift must be “landed” and continue to glide upon “landing”.
        • If the gliding stops at any time during a lift that glides, the gliding will not be counted.
      3. StationaryRotational Lift that rotates on the spot only “rotation of at least 180° by the supporting skaters in a Group Lift/lifting skater in Pair Lift
        • A lift that remains stationary as it rotates
        • All supporting skaters in a Group Lift/lifting skater in Pair Lift must turn at least 180° once the lifted skater is in the elevated position.
        • The supporting skaters in a group lift/lifting skater in pair lift must may turn from forwards to backwards or vice versa using two-footed mohawk or three-turn like steps.
      4. Rotational Lifts that glide and rotate at the same time – A Rotational Lift is a lift in which lifting skater(s) rotate in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction while gliding/traveling across the ice.
        • All skaters in a Group Lift/both skaters in Pair Lift must be skating or gliding as they prepare for the lift. The lift must glide during the rotation. There is no minimum amount of ice coverage required for gliding either before, during or after the rotation.
        • The supporting skaters in a Group Lift/lifting skaters in Pair lift must rotate by turning from forwards to backwards or vice versa using two footed mohawk like steps.
        • All skaters in a Group Lift / both skaters in Pair Lift must continue to glide during the exit of the lift. The lift must be “landing” and continue to glide upon “landing”. If the gliding stops at any time during a Rotational lift that glides and rotates, the gliding will not be counted.
    4. Acrobatic Lifts are not allowed in Synchronized Skating. Acrobatic Lifts are defined as moves in which the skater is held only by either the blade(s), foot(feet), leg(s) or arm(s) and swung around.
      • All lifts where the lifted skater(s) is in a totally vertical sustained position with the head down are considered as expression of acrobatics is illegal. 
      • Lifts where the lifted skater is rotating around herself/himself are allowed, provided there is no sustained, totally vertical position with the head down.
      • Lifts performed by only one (1) lifting skater who fully extends their lifting arms above the head are illegal. However lifts where there are two (2) or more lifting skaters (group lifts) that use full extension of their lifting arms are allowed.
  8. PAIR PIVOT: A Pair Pivot is executed by two skaters where one of the skaters is pivoting with the toe pick in the ice and the supported skater is gliding around that pivot. Both skaters must rotate for at least 360°. Any variation of the pivoting skater is allowed (backward or forward) as long as she/he keeps the pivot position(toe pick in ice). The supported skater may be gliding using a variety of positions. These positions may include an upright position, spiral or another position that is not upright. The difficulty of this position will determine the difficulty level of the Pair Pivot.
    1. Death Spiral – The skater executing the Death Spiral must skate on a clean edge with her/his body and head close to the ice surface; however, the skater must not touch the ice with their head or assist themselves with the free hand or any part of the body. Variations of arm hold and pivot position (backward or forward) are possible.
  9. SPINS: A Spinning movement with at least three (3) revolutions without interruption performed on one (1) foot on the spot (except a cross foot spin) and in the correct position.
    1. Types of Spins
      1. Solo Spins: The skaters are spinning as individuals on one (1) foot without interruption.
      2. Spin with a change of foot or position: A spin with a change of foot or position must consist of one (1) change of foot or of one (1) change of position with not less than three (3) revolutions on each foot respective in each position.
      3. Spin Combination: The spin combination must consist of only one (1) change of foot and at least a minimum of two (2) different changes of position (sit, camel, upright or any variation thereof) with not less than three (3) revolutions on each foot. The minimum number of revolutions required in each position is two (2) without interruption. The change of foot and the change of position must be made atmay be made either at the same time by all skatersor separately. The change of foot may be executed in the form of a step over but not a jump.
      4. Pair Spin: A spin skated by two (2) skaters performed on the spot around a common axis simultaneously for three (3) revolutions without interruption. This spin must be started and completed on one foot. One or both of the partners may be in different spinning positions, and in any hold. If there is more than one (1) pair executing the spin, then the same spinning position(s) must occur at the same time.
    2. Types of Spinning Positions
      1. Camel Spin: The skater remains in a spiral position while rotating. The free leg including the knee and foot) must be held at hip level or higher.
      2. Sit Spin: The skater remains in a sit position while rotating. The supporting leg must be bent at least to 90° angle. The thigh of the skating foot must be parallel to the ice surface.
      3. Upright Spin: The skater is in a upright position spinning a minimum of three (3) revolutions. The arms and free foot may be held in a variety of positions.
    3. Variations of an Upright Spin: 
      1. Cross foot spin: An upright spin position where both of skaters feet are on the ice while spinning. The feet may be crossed in front or behind.
      2. Layback spin: The skater must be leaning backwards with the head leaning away from the core axis of the body. The body must show a definite arch in the back.
      3. Sideways leaning spin: The skater must have at least a 45° angle from the torso to be credited.
      4. A-Frame spin: A spin where the skater's body is bent forward at the waist so that the head is near the skating knee. The free leg is held near the supporting leg. The free leg and/or the supporting leg may or may not be held.
    4. Difficult Variation of an Upright Spin: A difficult variation is a movement of the free leg which requires more physical strength, flexibility of the upright spin and therefore has an effect on the balance of the main body core.
      1. Biellmann spin (Biellmann position in a spin): A spin where the skater’s free foot is pulled, by one hand or both, from behind to a position higher than the head towards the top of the head close to the central axis of the skater.
      2. Spiral 135° A spin where the skater’s body remains upright with the free leg held at a 135° angle to the skating leg. The free leg may be held to the front, or to the side, or back. The free leg and supporting leg should be straight. The free leg may be supported or unsupported.
    5. Flying Spins: This spin must fly during the entry of the spin. No previous rotation on the ice before take-off is permitted. The “flying position” may be executed in any position but all skaters must be in the same flying position. A three turn executed before the flight does not demonstrate a flying spin. After landing, all skaters must be in the same and correct spinning position for three (3) revolutions for the spin to be counted.
  10. THROW JUMP: Throw jumps are partner assisted jumps in which one of the skaters is thrown into the air by another skater on the take-off and lands without assistance from the partner on the backward outside edge. A throw jump may have any number of revolutions. and are considered an illegal element.
  11. VAULT: A Vault of not more than one (1) revolution, in which a skater(s) provides passive assistance to another skater(s) in a non-lifting manner. The take off must be done by the skater who vaults. In this action there is a continuous ascending and descending movement. The hands of a skater(s) providing the passive assistance may rise higher than shoulder level height. Two (2) Vaults are allowed in Intermediate, Open, Junior and Senior Free Skating only.

 


2.4 FREE SKATING MOVES

Free skating moves such as lunges, spirals, Ina Bauers, spread eagles, hydroblading, Biellmann spiral, Charlotte and shoot the duck are examples of free skating moves permitted in Synchronized Skating. Free skating moves are allowed in elements such as Creative elements, Move elements Movements in Isolation, Pair Element, Moves in the Field or as transitional moves between elements, or within an element, to increase the difficulty of transitions and add variety/complexity to the program. To get credit for performing free skating move, each move must be held in the correct position and on the correct edge for at least three (3) second. A free skating move with a with change of edge must be held for four (4) seconds. In this case the leading skater(s) must hold the free skating move for at least two (2) seconds on each edge. A free skating move executed forward is considered different than the same type of free skating move executed backward.

  1. HYDROBLADING: The skaters must show a low sit-like position that is counter-balanced, where the supporting leg is bent to at least 90° (parallel to the ice) and the free leg and hands are not resting on the ice surface. The skaters’ torso, including the shoulders, are leaning far in towards the centre of the circle and the free leg is placed to the outside of that circle. The move must be executed on an edge and on one foot.
  2. INA BAUER: An Ina Bauer is a two-footed movement in which the skater travels along the ice with one foot on a forward edge/tracing and the other on a matching backward edge on a different but parallel edge/tracing. An Inside Ina Bauer is considered to be different than an Outside Ina Bauer. An Outside Ina Bauer is not considered to be a different free skating move than an Outside or Inside Ina Bauer with a change of edge.
  3. LUNGES (FORWARD OR BACKWARD): A Lunge is a movement in which a skater travels along the ice with one leg bent (with at least 90° between the thigh and shin of the skating leg) and other leg directly behind with the boot/blade touching the ice. The skater’s torso may be upright, bent forward, leaning backwards or to the side. The free leg may be straight or bent and may be held to the back or side. The free foot may be in any position.
  4. SHOOT THE DUCK: The skaters must show a low position, where the supporting leg is bent to at least 90° (parallel to the ice) and the free leg is not resting on the ice surface. The skaters’ torso may be upright, bent forward. The free leg may be straight or bent and may be held to the front or to the side. The move must be skated on an edge and on one foot.
  5. SPIRALS: A Spiral is a glide on a long forward or backward, inside or outside edges in arabesque position. To be counted as a Spiral, the free leg (including knee and foot) must be held at least at hip level or higher than hip level. The position of free leg may be backward, forward or sideways. Spirals executed on a forward edge shall be considered different than Spirals skated on a backward edge.
    1. Biellmann: To be called as a Biellmann position, the skater’s free foot is pulled from behind to a position higher than the head and towards the top of the head close to the central axis of the skater. The position needs to be held and maintained for at least 3 seconds. A Biellmann skated on a forward edge shall be considered different than a Biellmann skated on a backward edge.
    2. Charlotte: A Charlotte is a glide either forward or backwards on a edge or a flat. The skaters’ body must bend forward so that the head and chest is “close” to the supporting leg. The free leg and supporting leg should be straight with the free leg extended behind and held at a minimum of 135° from upright. The free leg may be supported (either by the same or another skater) or unsupported.
    3. Spiral with a Change of Edge and Free Leg Position: A spiral with a change of edge and free leg position, the free leg must remain at least at hip level or higher than hip level as it changes position. The free leg position may change from front, to side, or to the back, or any combination thereof.
    4. Spiral 135°: A Spiral 135° is a glide on a forward or backward inside or outside edge. The skaters’ body remains upright with the free leg held at a 135° angle to the skating leg. The free leg may be held to the back, front or to the side. The free leg and supporting leg should be straight. The free leg may be supported (either by the same or another skater) or unsupported.
    5. Spiral Variation: A Spiral position either to the front, side or to the back where the free leg is bent and supported (either by the same or another skater) or unsupported. The free leg must be higher than hip level (including the knee and foot).
    6. Spread Eagle: A Spread Eagle is curving, two-footed movement in which the skater skates with one foot on a forward edge and the other on a matching backward edge on the same curve (e.g. outside and outside). An Inside Spread Eagle is considered to be different than an Outside Spread Eagle. An Outside Spread Eagle is not considered to be a different free skating move than an Outside or Inside Spread Eagle with a change of edge.
  6. POINT OF INTERSECTION: The point of the intersection is defined as being the area approximately 1 meter before and after the exact point where skaters pass each other. In the case of a collapsing intersection (box, triangle, etc.) the point of intersection is defined as being the area when the majority of the skaters have reached approximately the half way point of that intersection. There are various difficulty groups which are updated in ISU and Skate Canada Communications.


2.5 ADDITIONAL FEATURES

DEFINITION OF ADDITIONAL FEATURES

  1. Back to Back Preparation and Approach: The skaters’ back (including shoulders and hips) are facing towards the axispoint of intersection, independent of the skating direction, during both the end of the Preparation Phase and the entire Approach phase. Skaters may be skating either forward or backward. When the skaters are skating backward and their shoulders are twisted to face forward toward the point of intersection, the preparation and/or approach will not be considered to be back to back. A pivoting entry with backward skating is also considered to be a back to back preparation and approach as long as the lines pivot more than 90°.
  2. Body Movement: Body movement is the visible use of the body parts (arms, legs, head, torso) to the rhythm of the music when executing the turns and linking steps. Levels in space are divided into high, medium and low levels. The torsocore must visibly move away from its vertical axis centre balanced position and must be clearly recognized as having an influence on the balance onweight distribution over the blade.
    1. High Level: The area above the shoulders (high kicks and use of the arms over the head or hops with arms over the head plus movement of the torso will meet the requirements for a high level).
    2. Medium Level: The area of space between the shoulders and the waist (spiral or spiral like positions with the majority of the skater’s body filling the medium level in space plus movement of the torso will meet the requirements for a medium level).
    3. Low Level: The area of space below the waist (lunges, plus movement of the torso such as bending over at the waist and other such movements with the majority of the skater’s body trying to fill the low level in space will meet the requirements for a low level).
  3. Change of Rotational Direction: Change of rotational direction refers to such elements as, a wheel or a circle changing from clockwise to counter-clockwise. Change of rotational direction must be executed at the same time by all skaters. Different linking steps/turns, holds and free skating moves may be executed during the change of rotational direction.
  4. Change of ConfigurationPosition During a free skating move: An action where all the skaters must change their arrangementposition while executing a free skating move. If a skater begins on the right side of another skater, they must change to the left side of that same skater. Each skater must first be on an individual track/curve before crossing the track of the other skater with whom they are changing position with and then again establish their own track/curve after tracks have crossed
  5. Change of Position of a lifted skater: The lifted skater must rotate a minimum of 180 degrees if using a horizontal axis, or 90 degrees if using a vertical axis. There are no specific requirements if using a combination of both horizontal and vertical axes.
  6. Difficulty of Holds: A change of hold that will increase or decrease the length of a line, spoke or the size of a circle. Basket weave, catch, hand, elbow, shoulder, and no hold are some examples of different holds that may be used during synchronized skating routines.
  7. Interacting Lines: An action where two lines change their position in relationship to each other.
  8. Extra Features: Extra features are short free skating moves,dance jumps, toe steps, small hops, etc.
  9. Interacting and Pivoting Line: An action where two (2) lines are both pivoting and interacting (changing position) with each other at all times. Both lines must pivot at least 180°. The pivoting must occur at the same time as they are interacting. The line must pivot 90°, when compared to each other, from their starting angle. The lines must stay in close proximity to each other as they change positions during the whole element.
  10. Pivoting: An continuous action in one (1) rotational direction where an element such as a line or block turns/rotates around the samea point for a required distanceas the pivoting element continues to move over and/or across the ice so that the slow end does not become stationary. All skaters must execute the same linking steps/turns/edges, in the same skating direction, at the same time during pivoting.
  11. Change of pivot point: Occurs in the block or line element when the pivot point changes from one end to the other. The pivot point is permitted to progress through the lines; retrogression is not permitted during the change of pivot point; and skaters may not cross their own tracks as the pivot point changes end.
  12. Three Different Patterns: A pattern that may be curved, diagonal, or in a straight line along the long or short barrier of the ice surface.
  13. Travel: An action where a rotating element such as a circle or wheel is caused to move in a given direction or path for a required distance. The rotation and travel must occur at the same time. The path may be curved or straight. All skaters must execute the same linking steps/turns/edges, in the same skating direction and at the same time during traveling.
  14. Change of position of each spoke (Wheel): All skaters in each spoke must change position at the same time so that the order becomes opposite compared to the start (i.e. skaters starting on the outside of the spoke must end in the middle of the wheel etc.) in the case of uneven numbers of skaters in a spoke (five (5) skaters), the middle skater may stay in the same place.
  15. Weaving during travel (Circle): All skaters must change places at the same time. If starting on the outside circle, they must change into the centre circle.
  16. Two (or Three) Different Configurations: An action where the skaters must change their formation or arrangement while executing a synchronized skating element.


3.1 MARKING OF SYNCHRONIZED SKATING SHORT AND FREE PROGRAMS

In Synchronized Skating Short and Free Skating programs, marking will follow the Cumulative Points Calculation (CPC). Refer to Rule Book > Cumulative Points Calculation (CPC) Judging System Regulations > Section A > 125 Marking of Synchronized Skating Short and Free Skate.

In synchronized free skating two marks are awarded. The first mark is for technical merit and the second one for presentation.

  1. TECHNICAL MERIT: In marking the "Technical Merit" the following must be considered:
    1. DIFFICULTY OF THE PERFORMANCE
    2. VARIETY OF ELEMENTS
    3. CLEANNESS AND SURENESS OF SKATING EDGES WITH APPROPRIATE SPEED AND FLOW
    4. SPEED
  2. PRESENTATION: In marking the "Presentation" the following must be considered:
    1. HARMONIOUS COMPOSITION: Harmonious composition of the program as a whole and its conformity with the music chosen.
    2. UTILIZATION OF ICE: Placement of formations and maneuvers in the utilization of the ice surface.
    3. UNISON: Unison and synchronization in relation to the music.
    4. CARRIAGE AND STYLE
    5. ORIGINALITY (UNIQUENESS)
    6. EASE OF MOVEMENT AND SURENESS IN TIME TO MUSIC
    7. EXPRESSION AND VARIETY OF THE CHARACTER OF THE MUSIC
  3. NO INDIVIDUAL MANEUVER CAN BE GIVEN PREDOMINANCE: All the elements of a synchronized free skating program (the maneuvers and particularly the step sequences, the difficulty and variety of transitions and the speed and flow), must be taken into consideration in the mark for Technical Merit and be rewarded according to their relative merit as to difficulty. No individual maneuver can be given predominant importance and the program must be considered as a whole.
  4. FALLS: If a competitor(s) falls through his own fault, it must be reflected in the mark for Technical Merit and also in the mark for Presentation if the fall interrupts the harmonious composition. A fall is in itself no bar to winning. See "General Technical Guidelines for all Figure Skating Competitions - Stops and Falls".
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